A survey of Setaria microfilaria (Mf) in the blood of Japanese Black calves performed between September 2002 and June 2003 in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed a total Mf positive rate of 29/672 (4.3%). The positive rate differed according to season in relation to calf birth month. The largest numbers of Mf-positive calves were born between autumn and winter. Calves born in November, December, January and February had positive rates greater than 10%. Calves born in the spring (April to July), on the other hand, were Mf-negative. The Mf detected was morphologically identified as Setaria marshalli.
At 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, gastro-endoscopic. examinations were conducted on 11 thoroughbred foals kept at four different breeding stations. Different amounts of concentrated feed were supplied to the foals' dams, and the foals were allowed to eat their dams' food. In all age groups, lesions were observed more frequently in the squamous mucosa than in the glandular mucosa or pylorus. Lesions in the glandular mucosa or pylorus were less severe than those in the squamous mucosa. Lesions in the squamous mucosa were more prevalent and more serious in foals kept at the two farms where more concentrated feed was fed the mares. At 30 and 60 days, the difference between those foals and others kept on farms where concentrated feed amounts were smaller was significant (P<0.05). These results suggest that feeding mares concentrated feed is an important factor in the pathogenic development of gastric ulcers in foals.
Seven Japanese Black steers were divided into two groups. The restricted group (RG, 4 steers) was fed a vitamin-A-restricted diet throughout the examination period (phases I and II). The control group (CG, 3 steers) was fed the same diet during phase I then a diet supplemented with vitamin A during phase II. Nutritional status and endocrine functions of the two groups were compared. In both the RG and the CG, plasma retinol levels correlated positively with feed intake and serum-albumin concentration (P< 0.01). When the plasma retinol concentration dropped to less than 20 IU/dl, feed intake declined sharply. At slaughter time, serum-albumin concentrations (2.6 vs 3.7g/dl, P< 0.01) and the albumin/globulin ratio (0.61 vs 1.12, P < 0.01) were significantly lower in RG than in CG steers. Some RG steers were anorexic and heavily deficient in protein and energy at that time. Clear intermuscular edema was observed in one of these steers. Although no difference in leptin concentration was observed, depression of the plasma tri-iodothyronine level and an increased plasma growth hormone level in this animal were typical hormonal features of malnutrition. Decrease in plasma oncotic pressure caused by hypoalbuminemia resulting from hypovitaminosis A is considered one of the causal factors of intermuscular edema.
In April 2001, a laying-hen farm housing about 40, 000 birds experienced high mortality rates with animals demonstrating signs of dyspnea and cyanosis. About 3, 000 chickens died during the outbreak, one day prior to the start of which chloropicrin had been sprayed on a neighboring field. Histopathologically, the dead hens had acute catarrhal fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The total hemoglobin of surviving hens was significantly elevated. On the basis of these findings, chloropicrin poisoning was suspected.
Ligation of the thoracic duct was attempted for a female Shetland sheepdog (four years old) suffering from chylothorax. Radiography revealed a small amount of pleural effusion 37 days later. Although medical therapy was attempted to alleviate the condition, the effusion increased. Consequently at 92 days, to promote pleural adhesion, we administered OK-432. The initial dose was 1KE; a total of 8KE was injected into the thorax on four occasions over a period of 46 days. The dog showed no significant adverse effects, and the effusion decreased. Currently, after 18 months, the dog is asyptomatic, in good health, and free of signs of pleural effusion.
Tumor-dormancy therapy using an angiogenesis inhibitor and two differentiation agents as clinical trials was employed to treat two dogs with skeletal or extraskeletal osteosarcoma, respectively. Because, in both cases, QOL was well maintained and tumor progression was slow, the tumor-dormancy therapy seems effective as a treatment for dogs with osteosarcoma.
Fecal samples from beef cattle (n=75), swine (n=105) and broiler chicken (n=32) and samples of ground beef (n=50) and ground pork (n=50) were examined for isolation of Arcobacter, Campylobacter, and Salmonella. Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 4.0% of cattle, 23.8% of swine, and 62.5% of chicken fecal samples; Campylobacter spp. from 76.0% of cattle, 63.8% of swine, and 50.0% of chicken fecal samples; Salmonella spp. from 0.0% of cattle, 3.8% of swine, and 53.1% of chicken fecal samples. All isolates detected from Campylobacter-positive cattle and chicken fecal samples were C. jejuni. Those from swine fecal samples were 97.0% C. coli and 3.0% C. jejuni. Ground-meat samples harbored no Campylobacter or Salmonella, although Arcobacter were isolated from 20.0% of the ground pork and 6.0% of the ground beef. A. buzleri was the most prevalent species in the Arcobacter-positive samples. S. Infantis was the predominant serovar in both swine and chicken fecal samples. These results indicate that fecal samples of livestock may be a potential vehicle for transmitting food poisoning caused by Arcobacter, Campylobacter and Salmonella.