Phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was conducted using 22 PCV2-positive samples collected from pigs reared in Kagoshima Prefecture between 2002 and 2017, 16 of which were diagnosed with porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The 22 analyzed samples were classified into three genotypes: genotype a (PCV2a), four samples collected from 2002 to 2009; genotype b (PCV2b), 13 samples collected from 2008 to 2017; and genotype d (PCV2d), five samples collected from 2014 to 2017.
This study aims to assess the effect of beta-carotene supplementation on fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) in calves. Twenty-two Japanese Black calves were alternately assigned to two groups: 11 calves received 20 mg/day of beta-carotene orally from 2 to 4 weeks of age (BC group), and the other 11 calves did not (control group). Blood samples were collected at 2 weeks of age and 4 weeks of age (two weeks after administration). The serum beta-carotene concentration in the BC group was significantly higher than in the control group two weeks after administration. In addition, the fecal IgA concentration in the BC group was significantly higher than in the control group two weeks after administration. These results suggest that beta-carotene supplementation might increase IgA secretion in the intestinal tract of calves.
Data on explanatory models of animal hospital clients were collected using a survey comprised of eight open-ended questions. The descriptions were qualitatively analyzed using the Steps for Coding and Theorization (SCAT) method, which allows theories to be formed from small-scale text data. Overall, 104 clients at four primary care animal hospitals participated in the survey. The clients' explanatory models were categorized into the following three groups: etiology, pathology and disease course, and treatment policy. In the etiology category, the suspected cause of the problem was divided into biomedical and situational factors. The pathology and disease course category included the process of the problem, including the cue for consultation, concern about criticality or quality of life (QOL), and consciousness and acceptance of disease. Finally, the treatment policy category pertained to who makes decisions and how treatment lays a heavy burden on clients and patients. Because every category could affect clients' compliance and outcomes, related information should be obtained from clients through a medical interview.
A 1-year-8-month-old, mixed-breed dog presented with anorexia and diarrhea. Diagnostic imaging revealed abdominal masses, which were diagnosed as T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphoma by cytological and clonality examination. Multidrug therapy was ineffective. The dog died 14 days after the initial examination. Necropsy with histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed T-cell lymphoma involving systemic organs including mesenteric mass, liver, spleen, lungs, left and right kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, adrenal gland, mediastinum and lliac nodes.
The histopathological and immunohistochemical features of lymphoma in two Holstein cows were studied. Histologically, both cases received a diagnosis of peripheral gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma, based on positive results for CD3, CD5, and WC1, and negative results for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). In case one, the neoplastic cells had round to oval nuclei, most of which contained cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules, and a diagnosis of gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma, hypergranular variant was made. In contrast, in case two, the neoplastic cells showing variation in cell size and marked nuclear irregularity (convolution) were cytologically distinct from those in previously reported histological subtypes of gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma, and a diagnosis of pleomorphic gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma was made. Because this lymphoma is relatively difficult to distinguish cytologically from pleomorphic B cell lymphoma, immunohistochemistry is required for differential diagnosis.