Dry porcine plasma (PP) and dry bovine milk whey (BMW) with a rotavirus-neutralizing activity were fed to the first and second groups of hysterectomy-produced colostrum-deprived (HPCD) piglets respectively, with the third group not receiving these immunosubstances and the fourth group being fed both immunosubstances. All groups except for the fourth group were inoculated orally with the rotavirus three days after birth. The third group which was given no immunosubstance and inoculated with the virus developed severe diarrhea, and excreted rotavirus in the feces, showed depression, and one of the three died 6 days after inoculation. Although infected piglets fed PP or BMW also showed diarrhea and rotavirus shedding, none of them died and, as compared with the infected control piglets of the third group, showed less intense clinical signs. Especially, the first group fed PP had a delayed onset and a shorter duration of diarrhea and with a reduced amount of excreted virus. All of the infected piglets developed antibodies to the rotavirus. The unexposed piglets fed both PP and BMW remained healthy and did not excrete rotavirus and did not develop any antibodies to rotavirus.
Changes in levels of serum and red blood cell tocopherol and serum vitamin A (retinol and retinyl palmitate) in dairy cows were examined after oral administration of vitamin AD3E premix of the liquid or rumen bypass type. In the groups administered with vitamin E 1, 000IU (dl-α-tocopherol acetate), tocopherol levels in blood did not increase. Cows administered with 6, 000IU of vitamin E of the liquid type showed significant high levels in serum and red blood cells tocopherol, but in those administered with the rumen bypass type tocopherol levels did not change. After administration with 2, 500, 000IU, 5, 000, 000IU, 7, 500, 000IU and 10, 000, 000IU of vitamin A of the liquid type, serum retinol and retinyl palmitate levels increased markedly. However, there was no significant difference in increase of serum vitamin A levels among the groups over 5, 000, 000IU of vitamin A. The cows administered with 10, 000, 000IU of vitamin A of the rumen bypass type showed a slight increase of serum levels. It was concluded that the effective doses, which indicated the increase of blood levels after administration of vitamin A and E, were within 5, 000, 000IU of vitamin A and over 6, 000IU of vitamin E of the liquid type in cows, although there was difficulty in absorption of vitamin A and E of the rumen bypass type.
In December 1989, fascioliasis was diagnosed in thirty-three 18-month-old fattening cattle from the same cowshed in Fukuoka prefecture. They showed anorexia and emaciation. Fecal examination revealed many fasciola eggs. The highest egg content (EPG) was about 1, 300. At autopsy, hyperplasia of the liver and bile duct wall was observed, and many young migrating flukes and adult flukes were recognized in the liver. Histopathologically, fibroplasia, necrosis, abscess, hemorrhage and infiltration of eosinophils were detected in the liver.
Three-hundred and twenty-four cows were clinically and pathologically investigated to clarify the cause and pathogenesis of periarthritis which is widespread in the Chugoku district. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The lesion incidence was 35.8%. The hind-limbs, especially the right tarsal joint, were affected more frequently than forelimbs. The incidence for cows kept in a stall with a cow mat was lower than without one, and no outbreak was found for cows kept in a loose barn stall. The lesions were characterized by depilation, swelling, induraton and fluctuation, and were located on the dorsal side of the carpal joints and the external side of the tarsal joints. Ultrasonography revealed the nature of cysts, but it was impossible to demonstrate an articular cavity ultrasonographically. The mucinous precipitate quality of fluid within cysts was poor, and the fluid was obviously different in nature from the synovial fluid. Macroscopically, cysts or abscesses were located in the subcutaneous tissue and not connected with the articular cavity. Microscopically, the cysts originated from dilated lymphatics or gaps formed within the loose subcutaneous tissue. Secondary bacterial infection frequently evoked suppurative inflammation in the damaged skin. The characteristic lesions of periarthritis of dairy cows appeared to be subcutaneous cysts with or without bacterial infection. It was concluded that the cysts were induced by persistent or repeated physical pressure on the affected sites and that the onset of periarthritis was closely related with the management system of dairy cows.
A 2-year-old Holstein-Friesian dairy cow affected with skin leukosis was pathologically examined about 60 days after the first appearance of tumors. The cutaneous tumors measuring 2 to 7cm in diameter were observed on the neck, shoulder, back and abdomen, numbering about 850. At autopsy, the kidneys had discrete solid nodules 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter, and the abomasum had discrete greyish white nodules 2-5 mm in diameter. Microscopically neoplastic cells were observed in the skin, liver, kidneys, bone marrow, abomasum and lymph nodes (subparotideal, axillar, cervical superficial, prefemoral, popliteal, supramammary, iliac medial, sacral and tuberous ischii.) Most of these cells appeared to be lymphoblasts. In the skin, the epidermal eliminating phenomenon was observed in the dermis. Anti-BLV antibody was negative.
The development of the diploid type ofParagonimus westermaniin cats was examined.P. westermani, 1-hr-to 245-day-old, was recovered from cats experimentally inoculated with the metacercariae of this lung fluke and then morphologically classified into juvenile, immature, preadult and adult stages, based on the live and/or mounted specimens. Most flukes recovered at 1 hr to 7 days, at 14 to 28 days, at 35 to 70 days and at 98 to 245 days after inoculation, were at juvenile, immature, preadult and adult stages, respectively. The diameter of oral and ventral suckers as well as the length and width of flukes recovered were measured. The oral sucker was larger than the ventral one in every fluke of 140 days and older. The relationship between the migration route, location, and developmental stage of P. westermani in cats was discussed.
A simple and sensitive method for determination of residual sulfadimidine (SDD) in swine muscles and urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Muscles were deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid. SDD in urine was extracted with chloroform. The deproteinized supernatant from the muscles and urine extract were reacted with o-phthaladehyde, and then injected into the HPLC column (Inertsil ODS-2). SDD was separated with a solution containing 1% phosphoric acid, methanol, and acetonitrile (62: 17: 21) as a mobile phase and detected with a spectrofluorometric detector (EX, 285 nm; EM, 445 nm). The recoveries of SDD from swine muscles and urine fortified with 400 ng were 78.1% and 89.6%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.05 ng/mland it was adequate for residual analysis. In the experimental administration of SDD to swine, muscle SDD was not detected by this method after urine SDD completely disappeared. So it was indicated that the detection of SDD in urine is a useful indicator of SDD residual in the swine muscle.