Sugical treatment and positioning were carried out in 63 dogs and cats under anesthesia with ketamine hydrochloride (KT).(1) In dogs, an intramuscular dose of 20-30mg/kg induced analgesia sufficient to perform a minor operation for 10-20 minutes. Injection with this dose repeated 2-4 times or with a quarter of this dose 2-5times prolonged the duration thof analgesia.(2) In cats, essentially the same results were obtained, although analgesia was faster to appear and deeper and lasted longer than in dogs.(3) No significant effect was observed on respiration or circulation.(4) Some animals manifested a rise in tone of the limb muscles, nystagmus, excessive salivation, prolonged inability of locomotion after awakening, and loss of appetite. In cats, however, the side effects were much less remarkable than in dogs.
To examine the microbial contamination of dressed porcine carcasses induced by the scalding method conventionally used in the western part of Japan, viable bacterial counting was made and the isolated strains were classified. Counting was done on samples collected 0, 10, 30, 60, and 90minutes after scalding, and on samples harvested from the skin in the processes of scalding, dehairing, and washing. Results obtained are as follows. 1) The viable aerobic bacterial count of the scalding water was (2-10)×102immediately before scalding, (11-23)×10310minutes after scalding, (12-32)×103at 30 and 60minutes, and (12-36)×103at 90minutes. The viable anaerobic bacterial count was 3×10immediately before scalding and increased gradually after scalding, reaching 97×10 at 90minutes. 2) The viable aerobic bacterial count of the pig skin increased gradually in the process of dehairing. It was (16-30)×105immediately before washing of the dressed carcass and was maintained almost at this level after washing. 3) Gram-positive rods were predominant among the isolated strains. Micrococcus was isolated 10-20 minutes after scalding. Achromobacter, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Alcaligenes were isolated at a low rate. 4) Predominant after scalding were Micrococcus. Escherichia coli, Leuconostoc, Gaffkya, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Achromobacter were isolated at nearly the same rate as the Grampositive rods. 5) Higher proteinase activity was shown by strains which contaminated the carcass probably after scalding than by the Gram-positive rods which were predominant in scalding water.
Of 6, 129 healthy pigs slaughtered at the Tokachishimizu Abattoir, Hokkaido, from April, 1969, to July, 1970, 173 pigs (2.8%) showed tuberculous lesions in the mesenteric lymph-Knodes. These lesions were also present in the submaxillary lymph nodes in 16 pigs (0.2%). The incidence of such lesions rather varied from one piggery to another according to sanitary and feeding conditions. Acid-fast organisms were demonstrated microscopically in 65 materials (67%) out of 97 collected caseous or calcified lymph nodes. They were isolated in pure state in nearly 100 per cent by cultural experiments. Thirty isolated strains tested showed almost the same cultural and biochemical characteristics: slows growth, non-pigmented, light or dark in color, niacin negative, smooth-type colony formation, ability to grow at 22 or 44°C, catalase positive, and urease negative. No guinea pigs produced any lesion. Rabbits and chickens, when inoculated intravenously, developed tuberculous lesions in the liver, spleen, or lung, some of them succumbing 23-66days after inoculation. The organisms isolated were identified tentatively as members of the nonphotochromogenic group (Runyon's group III), though further experiments might be needed for accurate classification.