Sulfadimethoxin (SD) is regarded as a new longacting sulfonamide. In this investigation, the blood level of SD was determined following the administration by six different methods in dogs. The dru also examined for was effect on the prevention of post-surgical infection in dogs. The blood level rose very quickly to an effective extent after an intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection of 40 mg of SD per kg of body weight. This effective level was maintained for more than 12 hours. In the case of an oral administration of the same dose, the blood level rose slowly, reaching only 5.3 mg%, on the average, after six hours, and fell down also quite slowly. When intravenous injections were combined with either subcutaneous or oral administration, the blood level rose quickly to an effective level, which was maintained for more than 24 hours. It was found that when an effective blood level was maintained for more than 24 hours, and when subcutaneous or oral administration was repeated every 24 hours, the effective blood level could be maintained for a long time. Fifteen cases of Mann-Williamson's experimental operation and forty cases of ovariectomy were subjected to clinical experiments in order to determine the effect of SD on the prevention of post-surgical infection. The operative wounds were observed to the point of complete healing, and satisfactory results were obtained.
Gross' reaction (GR) and Hayem's test (HT) were carried out on sera collected from 100 cattle, consisting of 56 brought to a slaughterhouse and 44 clinically healthy ones. The results obtained were compared with serum protein pictures determined by paper electrophoresis. The aim of this experiment was to clarify whether HT could be used as substitute for GR. 1. The 100 sera were divided into three groups, high-, normal-, and low-valued, according to the value of the serum protein fraction. Distribution of the degrees of response to GR and HT among these groups was studied byχ2 examination. As a result, there were significant differences, at a level below 1 per cent, in albumin (A), total globulin (G), A/G ratio, and γ-globulin in both GR and HT. It was confirmed that these differences in distribution were induced, since there were many positive sera and a few negative sera both in the low albumin and low A/G ratio group and in the high total globulin and high γ-globulin group. 2. When the serum protein pictures and the results of GR and HT were compared, there were significant correlations, at a level below 1 per cent, in albumin, total globulin, A/G ratio, and γ-globulin in GR and HT, and a significant one, at a level below 5 per cent, in total protein content in GR alone. 3. The correlation coefficient between GR and HT was 0.589, which was significant at a level below 1 per cent. 4. The results of GR and HT were divided into two groups, negative and positive, and examined for the degree of agreement. It was found that there might be a very low probability for a chance to obtain more agreeable results than those of the present experiment. It was suggested that GR and HT might be essentially the same.
Problems have been left unsettled on the mechanism of food poisoning of bacterial origin. It has been assumed, however, that an important role may be played in an outbreak of such food poisoning by histamine which is produced in a food during the process of its decomposition. In the present investigation, an effort was made to detect, by some technique of serological reaction, histamine-producing organisms from among bacteria attached to raw fish. The materials used were gills collected from 16 fish. Precipitation tests were carried out between heat-extracts of organisms attached to the gills and anti-rabbit serum prepared with a histamine-producing organism (a strain of Morganella). Then bacterial strains of positive reaction were examined for ability of producing histamine, and isolated bacterial strains subjected to bacteriological examination. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. A distinctly positive test was shown between the antigen prepared from the gill of a horse-mackerel and anti-serum. 2. Two of the strains isolated from the same fish as mentioned above exhibited positive precipitation tests when the protein fractions of their bodies were used with the anti-serum, and positive agglutination tests when their live organisms and the same anti-serum were subjected to the tests. Bacteriological examination proved that the two strains were those of Achromobacter. It was confirmed, therefore, that there were a common antigen between these strains and the strain of Morganella employed. 3. It was confirmed by paper chromatography that the two strains mentioned above were capable of producing histamine. 4. A total of 57 strains were isolated from all the materials used. They consisted of 35 strains of Achromobacter, 10 strains of Bacterium anitratum, 7 strains of Flavobacterium, and 5 strains of Rettgerella.
The present consideration was made from the results of surveys conducted in the Nayoro district of Hokkaido during a period of four years beginning with 1959. 1. The number of farms raising dairy cattle has been decreasing since 1960. The dairy cattle population has been increasing in the crop field zone of this district, while it has been decreasing in the paddy field zone. Accordingly, there has been little change in the number of dairy cattle kept in this district as a whole. 2. The frequency of occurrence of reproductive disorders has been decreasing very conspicuously in the crop field zone and a little less remarkably in the paddy field zone year after year. 3. The acreage per capita of fields growing feed crops for self-sufficiency has been decreasing in both types of zones year by year. The yield of crops per acre, however, has been increasing as a whole. 4. The higher the rates of self-sufficiency of FU and DTP were in a dairy farm, the lower the frequency of occurrence of reproductive disorders became among the dairy cows kept there. In 1962, the rates of self-sufficiency of FU and DTP and the frequency of occurrence of reproductive disorders were 64.4%, 51.0%, and 16.6%, respectively, in the paddy field zone and 76.6%, 63.0%, and 13.1%, respectively, in the crop field zone. In conclusion, an increase in reproductivity can be expected from a maintenance of required quantities and, at the same time, an improvement of the quality of self-sufficient feed. It seems particularly important for this purpose to raise the rate of selfsufficiency of DTP.
Chickens were fed diets containing furazolidone and examined for changes in the intestinal flora. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1) In the case of administration at the rate of 200 ppm for a week, total bacterial counts showed a decrease in the contents at various levels of the intestinal tract, except in those of the cecum. 2) In the bacterial flora, lactobacilli (facultative anaerobic) decreased and Streptococcus increased in percentage. Bifidobacterium (obligate anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming rods), that was the most predominant organism in the cecum, underwent little change. 3) In the case of continual administration at the rate of 30 ppm, it was difficult to find any change in viable bacterial counts in the feces. Changes, however, occurred to the flora and type AIIIof lactobacilli, classified by Ochi et al., grew to be predominant. 4) In the case of continual administration at the rate of 200 ppm, bacterial counts decreased after administration, Streptococcus increased in percentage coincidentally with an increase of the total bacterial flora. Type AIIIof lactobacilli began to increase three weeks after administration, when the total bacterial count recovered nearly to the level seen before administration. 5) Lactobacillus was the most predominant organism in both control and administered groups. Judging from the results obtained from continual administration, a special type of lactobacilli may have increased to a marked extent, probably making the bacterial flora simple.