In the short period between March and April 1989, an outbreak of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) infection occurred among piglets on an integrated porcine farm in Ishikawa Prefecture. Fifty of 170 2-3-month-old piglets showed acute and severe symptoms, dyspnea and hemoptysis, and 18 piglets died within 3 days. Marked hydrothorax and fibrinous adhesion of the lungs were observed macroscopically and hemorrhagic pulmonary edema was revealed histopathologically. Ap serotype 1 antigen was detected enzyme-histochemically in the lesions of lungs. Strains of Ap serotype 1 were isolated in pure culture from the lungs of all the piglets tested. All the isolates were resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, and the results of the agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA purified from the isolates suggested that resistance of these isolates to the antibiotics was plasmid mediated. Serologicol survey revealed that 50.8% of the pigs raised on the premises had antibodies against Ap serotype 1; however, no antibody against serotype 1 was detected in 313 pigs raised on the other 23 farms in this prefecture From these findings, the importance of the practice of drug sensitivity test prior to drug administration and development of a combined vaccine containing Ap serotype 1 for control of the disease were suggested.
The dry chemistry system was applied to the blood chemical examination of chickens. The values obtained from 13-week-old “Takachiho” chickens (5 males, 5 females) and 8-week-old broilers (12 males, 9 females) were evaluated. The following laboratory parameters were included: total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), potassium (K), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total bilirubin (T-Bil), glucose (Glu), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (T-CHO), transaminase (GOT, GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and amylase (Amy). There were little significant differences in the serum biochemical profile between the 2 breeds of chickens. Chickens had lower values for TP and higher Glu levels than those of mammals. UA values were extremely high and BUN levels were lower than 3.Omg/dl. Serum enzymes, except for GPT and γ-GTP, revealed obvious high activities and wide variations. Most of the reference values obtaind by the dry chemistry system compared favorably with the published data by the use of conventional methods. From these results, it was conclude that the dry chemistry system may be useful for blood chemical analysis in chickens. It is necessary to collect more data for each laboratory parameter so as to establish the normal range, thereby evaluating properly the values measured with chickens.
In September 1989, a 3-month-old male dairy calf suddenly died after showing nervous signs. The autopsy disclosed remarkable meningeal hemorrhage in the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Histological examination revealed purulent meningitis as well as hemorrhage and purulent lesions in various other organs. Microbiologically, Streptococcus suis was isolated from the brain and lungs. Therefore, the case was diagnosed as purulent meningitis. Serologically, this strain did not belong to any of the 9 serotypes existing in Japan.
A granulosa cell tumor was found in a 2-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow, which was slaughtered to confirm an abdominal tumor and sterility. At autopsy, tumors varied in size were observed in the lungs and abdomen, and the ovary was not observed. Microscopically, neoplastic cells were observed in the lungs and some lymph nodes, and the tumor was diagnosed as the follicular type of granulosa cell tumor. The serum estrogen level was remarkably increased, especially the estrone (E1) level, but the estradiol (E2) level did not increased to any extent.
There have been many reports on the study of morphology and epidemiology of a fluke, Pharyngostomum cordatum Diesing, 1850, which parasites in cat small intestine. However, no reports have been published in Japan or overseas regarding the survival time of the adult fluke in the definitive host. Two 30-day-old cats (common Japanese cat; sibling, male, castrated) which had not been infected with P. cordatum were experimentally infected with the fluke by oral administration of 261 or 207 metacercariae isolated from the femoral muscle of Rana nigromaculata collected in the field. The number of eggs in feces (EPG) was counted over a long period of time. On the basis of EPG determined every day using the direct smear method revealed the prepatent period to be 15 and 16 days in the two cats. EPG determined at intervals of about 10 days was high between 30 and 71 days after the infection in both cats. Thereafter, EPG suddenly decreased, and no eggs could be detected on the 261st day after the infection in both cats. At this time, each cat was euthanatized and autopsied. No flukes could be detected in the intestine. Thus, the survival time of adult flukes was concluded to be 245 days (about 8 months).
During the period from April to May 1990, 18 swans (Cygnus spp.) and 80 wild geese (Anser albifrons) were found emaciated or dead because of lead-poisoning caused by ingestion of lead shots at Lake Miyajima in Hokkaido. Twenty-seven wild geese, four Whooper Swans (C. cygnus cygnus), and two Bewick's swans (C. cygnus bewickii) were treated using disodium calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA). The concentration of blood lead at the time of admission averaged 4.6, ranging from 3.2 to 8.0μg/ml in swans, and averaged 5.6, ranging from 0.4 to 23.0μg/ml in wildgeese. In all of the swans 4 to 40 lead pellets, with an average of 17 were seen on radiographs of their gizzards. In 22 of the geese 1 to 48 lead pellets, with an average of 10.5 per bird, were seen. The blood lead levels decreased to about 1/2 to 1/5 of the initial values one week after the institution of the therapy in all the bird treated. Eleven of 27 birds recovered 3 to 8 weeks after the therapy. These lead shots were rapidly eroded as the birds recovered their appetite in re-sponse to the treatment and disappeared no radiographs during treatment days 17 to 52. Sixteen geese and all the swans failed to recover their apPetite and died within 4 weeks in spite of a decrease in the concentra-tion of blood lead.
A total of 458 pigs were condemned as swine erysipelas in Osaka City Meat Inspection Center from 1972 to 1989. The cases of septicemia were found in 13 pigs, urticaria in 310 pigs and endocarditis in 135 pigs. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was detected in 38%(133/354) of the livers, 65%(292/448) of the kidneys, 54%(163/301) of the spleens and 33%(77/233) of the medial iliac lymph nodes examined. In the muscles, the organism was isolated from 124 (56%) of the 222 pigs. Serotypes of 272 E. rhusiopathiae strains isolated from 110 pigs were investigated. Ten serotypes of la, 1b, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 16 were detected. An isolate from the case of septicemia belonged to serotype la. The most predominant serotype of the 179 strains isolated from the cases of urticaria was serotype 2 (103 strains, 58%), and that of 92 strains from the cases of endocarditis was serotype 1a (66 strains, 72%). Two strains of different serotypes were isolated from each of the 5 pigs. Antimicrobic susceptibility was investigated on 115 strains isolated from 110 pigs. Twenty-four (21%) strains were resistant to streptomycin, and seven (6%) to tetracycline.
A non-isotopic DNA-probe hybridization assay has been developed for the rapid and definitive identification of Listeria spp. in food, which is now commercially available as a kit. We have evaluated the hybridization assay kit by comparing it with a conventional culture procedure regarding 56 cheese samples (including positive samples which had been tested previously and frozen) and 50 meat samples. For the cheese samples, 22 (39%) were positive by hybridization, while 24 (43%) were positive by the culture procedure. In the case of the meat samples, 36 (72%) were positive using UVM-2 broth and 34 (68%) positive using EB broth by the hybridization assay, while 39 (78%) were positive by the culture. With the cheese samples, 13 were positive for L. monocytogenes and for the meat samples, 19 were positive for this species. Most of the L. monocytogenes positive samples were detected by the hybridization assay. The above data show that the positive rate by the hybridization assay was slightly lower than by the culture procedure. However, this difference is not very important from a practical standpoint. The hybridization assay results can be obtained within approximately 3 hr following two day's of enrichment. The hybridization assay is therefore useful for rapid detection of Listeria in foods.