This evaluation of the sedative effects of medetomidine on general anesthesia of thoroughbreds used 12 horses. For sedation purposes, group A (6 horses) was injected with xylazine and midazolam; group B (6 horses) was injected with medetomidine. Recovery took longer in group B than in group A. For general anesthesia of thoroughbreds, therefore medetomidine is considered more effective than the combination of xylazine and midazolam.
To clarify the significance of milk-ammonia levels in dairy-herd health surveillance, ammonia, creatinine, and urea (MUN) levels were determined in 291 milk samples and 26 colostrum samples taken from186 lactating cows. The milk ammonia-N level was 1.4±9 ppm (mean±SD), nearly the sameas previously reported blood ammonia-N levels. The colostrum ammonia-N level, however, was much higher (11.4±6.7 ppm). Higher ammonia levels were observed in some samples thereafter. The colostrum creatinine-N level (14.4±1.6 ppm) was slightly higher than that of milk samples (13.0±1.2 ppm). Great fluctuation occurred in MUN levels at all lactation stages. Positive relations were observed between ammonia levels and creatinine or MUN levels in colostrum samples.
Peripheral mononuclear-cell subsets, serum and milk-endotoxin levels, and serum interleukin-1 (IL)-1 levels were observed in two cases of coliform mastitis in cows admitted to the large-animal hospital of Rakuno Gakuen University. One case was mild, the other severe. Although, in the severe case, percentages of CD-3-positive (+) cells decreased 3-10 days after hospital examination, no marked decrease in the percentages of these cells occurred in the mild case. On the occasion of hospital examination in both cases, percentages of CD 14+cells decreased; and a particularly pronounced increase in these cells occurred 5-10 days after hospital examination in the severe case. The serum-endotoxin level increased at hospital examination in the severe case, but no serum endotoxin was detectable in the mild case. Milk-endotoxin levels in both cases peaked at the time of hospital examination and decreased markedly after 2 days. In the severe case, an elevated serum IL-1 level was especially notable during the period when the cow demonstrated systemic inflammatory response. These results suggest that milk endotoxin induces systemic inflammatory response and that the pattern of mononuclear-cell subsets and serum IL-1 levels may be correlated with the severity of coliform mastitis.
From January to June 1998, on a feedlot farm in Shimane Prefecture, about 100 calves (20 days to 10 months of age) demonstrated respiratory symptoms accompanied by fever and nasal discharge. Thirty-four of them died. Pneumonic calves on this farm showed relatively high antibody titers to bovine respiratory virus (BRSV). Antibody titers to the following occurred in this order of decreasing prevalence: Pasteurellahaemolytica, Ureaplasmadiversum, Mycoplasmabovis, bovine adenovirus, type 7 (BADV-7) and parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV-3). Calves newly introduced tothe farm showed significant rises in antibody titers toU. diversumin spite of low antibody titers toP. haemolytica, M. bovis, BADV-7, PIV-3, and BRSV.
A newly developed test kit for detecting canine parvovirus (CPV) antigens in feces employs the immunochromatography method with a monoclonal antibody against the virus. It has been shown to be reactive with CPV type 2 and CPV subtypes 2a and 2b but not with the 5 other major infectious viruses in dogs. Since it enabled us to detect CPV antigens from the feces of experimentally CPV-infected dogs, this kit is considered a simple diagnostic tool for detecting CPV in small-animal practice.
The canine parvovirus (CPV) excreted in the feces of dogs inoculated with live CPV vaccine and othernaturally infected dogs was examined by means of the Latex-agglutination test (LA test). The virus was isolated from the feces of the inoculated dogs, though none of them manifested clinical signs. In2 inoculated dogs, at 6 weeks of age, the LA test revealed no CPV-specific antigen; and the ELISA test detected low virus titers of from 2 to 5 units. In 2 of 4 dogs inoculated at 15 days of age, the LA test showed weak agglutination in undiluted feces solution. In the ELISA test, 4 dogs excreted virus titers of from 3 to 100 units. CPV was isolated from 7 animals manifesting severe clinical signs. The HA test on feces from these animals showed virus titers of from 1: 512 to 1: 4, 096; the LA test showed titers of from 1: 2 to 1: 512. These results suggest that, in small animal practice theLA test is useful in discriminating rapidly between CPV natural infection and CPV infection resulting from vaccination.
To distinguish Japanese Black (JB) cattle from the primary crossbreed of JB and Holstein (HS) cattle, we determined partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial control (D-loop) region in 6 head of JB and one head of HS cattle. JB sequences, divided into 3 groups based on the 9 nucleotide substitutions found in the 481 base-pair JB sequences differed from HS sequences. A restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of 36 samples suggested that the nucleotide substitutions (G to A) at the 156 and 365 positions found in 4 of 6 JB but in no HS are not unique to the JB breed. A polymerase chain reaction with a newly designed primerpair produced highly effective amplification, suggesting that the primer-pair is useful for genetic analysis of the D-loop region in cattle.