The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of X-ray tube-cassette distance and image scanning time on image quality to establish the benefit of Computed Radiography (CR) in bovine clinical practice. The tube-cassette distance had no effect on the visual evaluation score (graininess and sharpness). The image scanning time correlated with graininess but not sharpness. From these results, it was concluded that accidental variations in the tube-cassette distance and variations in image scanning time of several hours will not be major problems in clinical practice. CR is considered a useful X-ray system in bovine clinical imaging in which the maintenance of reproducible tube-cassette distance is difficult and variations in image scanning time is assumed.
A Holstein dairy cow (female, age 5 months) presented with an open right metatarsal fracture. The cow had a spiral fracture and displacement with a longitudinal contraction. Skin injury and pus discharge were also observed on the medial and lateral sides. DCP and lag screw fixations were conducted under general inhalation anesthesia. A sheet of gelatin hydrogel (GH) impregnated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and a sheet of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) loaded with vancomycin were applied to the site of the fracture. The wounds were healed by 107 days post surgery, when a radiography revealed that a callus had formed at the site of the fracture. The sustained release of bFGF from GH effectively promoted bone regeneration,and the vancomycin-loaded PLGA sheet prevented complications associated with serious osteomyelitis. We believe that the bFGF-impregnated GH sheet and the vancomycin-loaded PLGA sheet can be applied for the future treatment of severe fractures in cattle.
Two 25-day-old thoroughbred foals died of acute disease at the same area of Aomori Prefecture in April and May 2008. Histologically, there was multifocal necrosis in the liver of both foals. Warthin-Starry staining clearly showed long slender bacilli in the hepatocytes surrounding the necrotic foci. The bacilli were immunohistochemically positive for the polyclonal antibody against C. piliforme. Electron microscopic examination revealed the bacilli with peritrichous flagella in the hepatocytes. Real-time PCR analysis using primers specific to C. piliforme detected the genomes in both liver samples. On the basis of these findings, a diagnosis of Tyzzer's disease was produced. A serological survey using indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the majority of mares in the region had the antibody to C. piliforme. These results suggest that C. piliforme has been widely distributed among horses in the region.
We conducted a clinical evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for the determination of the plasma insulin concentrations in cats. The variation coefficient of intra-assay reproducibility tests and the coefficient of the inter assay reproducibility test were 2.4% and 2.9%, respectively. The approximate straight line of the dilution test showed linearity. Recovery rates using the standard addition method ranged from 94.0% to 99.4%. Insulin concentrations determined in serum, EDTA plasma and heparinized plasma were nearly identical. Fasting plasma insulin concentrations were 0.462 ±0.194 ng/ml in 68 clinically healthy cats, and resembled the data in previous reports using radioimmunoassays for determination of human plasma insulin concentrations. Fasting plasma insulin concentrations were 0.744 ±0.239 ng/ml in 19 obese cats, and 0.362 ±0.175 ng/ml in eight cats with diabetes. The insulin concentrations in obese cats were significantly higher than in healthy and diabetic cats. In the glucose tolerance test, plasma insulin concentrations increased gradually. This assay kit is clinically useful for the determination of plasma insulin concentration in cats.
Renal denervation was performed in healthy dogs and in dogs with experimentally induced renal failure to examine the role of the renal nerve in canine renal hypertension. Before renal denervation, canine models of renal failure had a significantly lower renal excretion rate and higher blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine level compared to healthy dogs (P ＜0.05). After denervation, healthy dogs did not show significant changes in renal function, while blood pressure and plasma renin activity were significantly decreased (P ＜0.05), and sympathetic dominance was indicated by heart rate variability analysis. In dogs with renal failure, denervation did not weaken renal function but significantly lowered mean and diastolic blood pressures as well as plasma renin activity (P ＜0.05). These dogs showed parasympathetic dominance after denervation. These results suggest that the renal nerve plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and contributes to the development of renal hypertension, possibly via modulation of the plasma renin activity.
A 12-year-old male Pembroke Welsh Corgi was presented for the evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The tumor was located in the midline frenulum linguae. For complete surgical resection of the tumor, the dog underwent partial glossectomy of two-thirds of the tongue. Although postoperative nutritional management with a gastrostomy tube was necessary, the dog could eat and drink unaided within one and a half months after the operation. The dog's quality of life was good until it died following lung metastasis six months after the operation.