On a farm keeping 12 Japanese Black cows, mucosal disease occurred in a calf in August 1993 and again in 3 calves and a cow during December 2000 to February 2001. In order to clarify factors related to these multiple occurrences, all animals on the farm were subjected to virological and pathologicalexaminations. Calves and the cow with the disease developed diarrhea and erosions in the oral-cavitymucosa. Cytopathic and noncytopathic (NCP) strains ofBovine diarrhea virus1 (BVDV-1) were isolated from the sera of animals with no antibody to the virus. Multiple erosions and ulcers were observed throughout the alimentary tract, including the tongue, esophagus, and gastrointestinal tract. Investigation of the remaining animals on the farm for BVDV-1 showed that 3 cows were persistently viremic (NCP strain only). Four animals demonstrating mucosal disease after December 2000 were offspring (daughter or granddaughter) of a cow persistently viremic with the NCP strain. These findings suggest that the presence of animals persistently infected with BVDV-1 may be a serious factor in multiple occurrences of mucosal disease on a farm.
To clarify intestinal fermentation in newborn foals, fecal pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and lacticacid were analyzed in 113 fecal samples from 40 nursing neonates between birth and 7 weeks of age. Average values were fecal pH-7.52, VFA-0.26%, and lactic acid-0.01%(fresh basis). Mean molar ratioswere as follows: acetic acid 64%, propionic acid 21%, and butyric acid 15%. Large individual differences were observed in fecal pH, lactic acid, and VFA levels and ratios. Though fetal feces on birth day contained less VFA, fecal-VFA levels tended to rise thereafter, with maximum concentration occurring from 1 day to 1 week of age. Extremely high concentrations of lactic acid occurred in some fecalsamples on 0 and 1 day and 1 week of age. After declining at 1 week of age, fecal pH then tended to increase. It was concluded that it is possible for gut fermentation to produce VFA in neonatal foalsimmediately after colostrum feeding.
Clinical examination of a 6-months pregnant Japanese Black cow with dysuria revealed a large vaginalfibroma. The tumor was surgically excised. At subsequent parturition, a cesarean section was performed to avoid disrupting the cut in the vagina. Both the dam and the neonate recovered successfully.
Histopathological examination of solitary nodules at the shoulders and loins of a two-year-old male domestic cat revealed acid-fast bacilli packed in the cytoplasm of foamy macrophages and giant cells. A bacteriological culture prepared from this material was negative for Mycobacterium spp. Intraperitoneal injections of homogenized materials from the nodules resulted in generalized mycobacteriosis in C3H/He mice after 13 months. These results led to a diagnosis of feline leprosy caused by uncultivable mycobacteria.
Interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing a hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and an excimer dye laser was performed in 7 cases of spontaneous tumors (6 dogs and 1 cat). HpD was injected intravenously in doses of 5 mg/kg. Forty-eight hours later a laser-proof plastic tube was implanted in the tumor, and an optic fiber was inserted into the tube. A locally made motor device rotated the tip of the optic fiber and caused it to perform alternative movements. Light energy was set at 150 J/cm. In 3 of 6 dogs (1 benign mixed mammarygland tumor and two mastocytomas), tumors disappeared within 2 weeks. In the remaining 3 cases (benign mixed mammary-gland tumor, hemangiosarcoma and malignant melanoma), the necrotic nature of the tumors was histologically recognized upon surgical removal 2 weeks after PDT. In the cat, necrosis was observed at the center of the tumor (mammary carcinoma).
A comparison was made between the most-probable-number (MPN) and direct-plate methods for enumeratingCampylobacterspp. in commercial chicken livers. Results obtained by the MPN method agreed with those obtained with the direct-plate method. At levels of less than 103cfu/g, the MPN method gave aCampylobacter-contamination rate of 82.1%; the direct-plate method gave a corresponding rate of 76.8%. Because it is fast and easy, the direct-plate method is recommended for enumerating Campylobacter spp. in chicken livers. In addition, individual examinations of both surfaces and interiors showed that most of theCampylobacterspp. originated on liver surfaces.