Distribution and calibre of capillaries in the middle and inner ears were observed on 48 rabbits after intravascular injection with India ink. The conclusions summarized were as follows: 1) The major blood vessels supplying the malleus and the incus coursed on the. ligaments attached to both ossicles. 2) The calibre of capillaries (arteriole, nets capillary and venule) in subepithelial layer of the inner ear was smaller than those of the middle ear wall. 3) The crista acustica, the macula acustica and the stria vascularis had dense capillary network, while the semicircular canal, the vestibule except neuroepithelial areas and the round window had particular loose network. 4) The intermediate zone of the drum had a broad area without blood vessels. 5) In the crista acustica, the macula acustica, the stria vascularis, the eustachian tube and the auditory canal, the ratio of maximal size and minimal size of superficial capillary nets was generally large, while in the tympanic cavity, the ratio was generally small. 6) In the outer epidermal layer of the drum, peculiar form of blood vessel distribution was seen-capillaries on the border of mesh of blood vessels were forming elliptical loops. 7) The capillary nets in the spiral ganglion were winding, but could not be called as glomus. 8) In most animals, Reissner's membrane had fine blood vessels. 9) There was close anastomosis of blood vessels between the external ear and the middle ear. 10) Between the inner ear and the middle ear, there was no communicatin of blood vessels. 11) In the stria vascularis, anastomosis was not seen except arterioles and venules.
By injection of staphylococcus aureus or 3% silver nitrate solution into the tympanic cavities through the ear drum, otitis media was induced in 48 rabbits. Changes of size of capillary nets and caribres. of capillaries were observed in the rabbit's ear suffered from otitis media for 24 hours to 130 days. The conclusions summarized were as follows: 1) In the staphylococcus group, the capillaries in the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity revealed a remarkable change. In the silver nitrate group, the flow of India ink to the capillaries was hardly recognized, and major area of the, tympanic cavity was in the state of necrosis. 2) The capillaries of the tympanic cavity wall rapidly increased in number in early stage (5_??_20 days) of middle ear inflammation, and remained increased even in later stage (1_??_4 months). 3) New vessels grown from conical germ were extremely fine. India ink did not extravasate through the vessel wall. 4) The calibre of new vessels gradually grew larger and finally became as large as that of ordinary capillary network. By this time swelling of germ diminished or disappeared. 5) The calibre of venules grew larger rapidly and remarkably since very early stage (2 days). In some animals, they grew about twice as large. 6) The calibre of arterioles also grew larger in early stage, but was not so remarkable as venules. 7) The calibre of arterioles and venules in 1_??_4 months had tendencies that their rate of dilatation became lower than those in early stage. 8) The net capillaries were slow-in dilatation compared with that of arterioles and venules, and the rate of dilatation was lower than that of arterioles. In 3_??_4 months, there were tendencies that the rate of dilatation became higher. 9) During the course of this experiment, no remarkable change of new vessels and the calibre was revealed in the bony substance. 10) The leakage of India ink was remarkable in the venous side of capillaries, suggesting the increase of permeability or haemorrhagia per diapedesin in these areas. 11) In the staphylococcus group, the growth of granulation tissue from the tympanic cavity wall was observed in almost all cases in 7_??_130 days. The granulation tissue was observed mostly on the surface of the malleus, the stapes, the incus, the round window and the drum, in order of their frequency. In the silver nitrate group, the granulation tissue was observed in all cases in 10_??_50 days. 12) There were two types of growth of the blood vessels in the granulation tissue-one grown from germ, and another from fibroblasts around the area of bleeding. 13) In the staphylococcus group, in 5 cases out of 23, and in the silver nitrate group, in 7 cases out of 8, remarkable dilatation of capillaries in the stria vascularis was observed, mostly in early stage of middle ear inflammation. 14) In the inner ear, a remarkable dilatation of venules was also shown. 15) Net capillaries in the sria vascularis showed the remarkable dilataion compared with those in the middle ear. Dilatation was also remarkable in the crista acustica. 16) Spread of inflammation to the inner ear was mostly through the round window. Dilatation of the inner ear vessels in early stage was probably due to inflammatory products permeating through the round window vessels. 17) In the staphylococcus group, in 4 cases out of 23, the growth of secondary cholesteatomain the auditory canal were observed (in one case, cholesteatoma invaded into the tympanic cavity).The capillaries surrounding cholesteatoma were dilated forming dense network.
The influence of labyrinthine stimulation by accelerated rotation on the hemogram was observed in the dogs by means of Prof. Hasegawa's accelerating rotation apparatus, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate solution was also observed. The results were as follows: 1) In the normal dogs, after subjected to uontinuous stimulation for 15, 30 and 60 minutes, no change in the blood cell count was noted, but the chang in the differentiol leucocyte count was noted; relative lymphocytosis was noted temporarily, neutrophils were rather decreased, and there was no change in eosinophil and monocyte count. 2) Bilaterally labyrinthectomized dogs showed almost no change in hemogram, irrespective to the length of the stimulation.. 3) Normal dogs previoosly trea.el with 2cc/kg of 7% sodium bicarbonate solution also remained unaffected, notwithstanding continuous subjection to the rotatory acceleration. 4) In this experiment, the change in differential leiucocyle count, as the result of the accelerating stmuli, was interpreted as a phenomenon of sympatheticotonic reaction through the labyrinth. It was especially pointed out that this effect of the labyrinthine stimulation could be prevented by the injection of sodium bicarbonate.
The main purpose of this study is to find a way predicting the degree of pathological changes in the conductive system of the middle ear by means of an acoustic probe in hearing examination. Acoustical analysis of hearing loss of air conduction in conductive deafness by means of the test with the acoustic probe is the other purpose of this study. The acoustic probe is attached to a bone conductor. Reference level of hearing test with the acoustic probe is hearing threshold obtained with the acoustic probe applied to the handle of malleus of normal ear. For hearing examination with the acoustic probe, 57 subjects were selected from the patients who showed conductive deafness in audiogram for air and bone conduction test. Following results were obtained:- 1) Patients whose ossicular chain was disrupted and connected with granulation tissue showed hearing loss of 10_??_35 db by the hearing test with the acoustic probe. From this finding:the disruption of the ossicular chain could be previously known before middle ear operation was performed. 2) In clinical otosclerosis, hearing loss measured with the acoustic probe showed the degree of stapedial fixation. It will be of great value to estimate the degree of stapedial fixation when, we take a choice of operative procedures, such as stapes mobilization or fenestration operation. 3) Hearing threshold measured with the acoustic probe applied to the stapes was, on the whole, clinically equal to that applied to the handle of malleus with some exception which showed a deep notch between 1000 and 2000 cps. 4) Mobility of the stapes and of the round window membrane was well maintained in many cases on which radical operation had been performed. 5) Transmission loss of vibration due to disruption of the ossicular chain (connected with granulation tissue) was comparatively small (0-20db). 6) Hearing curves measured with the acoustic probe were divided into two groups, namely high tone loss and low tone loss curve. Cause of difference between two forms of high tone loss and low tone loss curve was attributed to the change of impedance in the conductive system. 7) Air conduction loss was divided into two parts by the hearing curve measured with.the acoustic probe. The hearing loss measured with the acoustic probe indicates the loss of transmission in the conductive system, and in cases without perforation of the ear drum the difference between the hearing curve with the acoustic probe and hearing curve of air conduction shows the loss of energy by transmitting the air-vibration to the malleus being caused by the pathological change in the ear drum and or the change of reaction given to the ear drum due to the impedance change in the conductive system. 8) Difference between the hearing curve measured with the acoustic probe and the hearing curve of air conduction was larger in the range of low and middle tone than in the range of high tone in many cases without perforation of the ear drum. 9) From the results above mentioned that hearing curves measured with the acoustic probe were divided into two groups, namely high tone loss and low tone loss curves. Difference between the hearing curve measured with the acoustic probe and the hearing curve of air conduction was larger in the range of low and middle tone than in the range of high tone in many cases, It is understood that forms of hearing curve of air couduction, viz. low tone loss, flat and high tone loss form, are principally made by the form of hearing curve measured with the acoustic probe, that is the change of impedance in the conductive system.
The fine structures of the plasma cells and lymphocytes found in the tissue of the human palatine tonsil were observed under an electron microscope by the aid of the ultra-thin slice method. The distribution of the plasma cells and lymphocytes coincided with and their shapes and contours were similar to the findings by the light microscope. However, as to the inner structures, new informations were obtained which could not even be imagined in the study by the light microscope. 1. In both cells the nuclear membrane showed a double membraneous sturcture and the inside of the nucleus was filled with fine granular substance. In the plasma cell the granular substance was aggregated near the inner surface of the nuclear membrane, presenting a wheel-like appearance.However, typical wheel-like cells were extremely rare. In the lymphocyte the granular substance was found in the nucleus either dense or coarse. Unlike the plasm cell the substance was not aggregated inside the nuclear membrane. 2. The Golgi apparatus showed a shape which was quite different from that observed by the light microscope. In the plasma cell the apparati were vacuoles of various size with elastic membranes or aggregates of membraneous structures and small vacuoles. It was concluded that this membraneous structure was essential for the Golgi apparatus. In the lymphocyte this apparatus was an aggregate of small granules with a simple structure. 3. In both plasma cells and lymphocytes one or two centrioles were frequently found in the Golgi apparatus. Its solid structure was tubular and it was consistenty found. 4. In the plasma cell dark and large granules were observed outside of the Golgi apparatus.It was supposed that these large granules were formed as the aggregates of the Golgi granules produced in the Golgi apparatus and sent into protoplasm. 5. In the protoplasm of the plasma cell, flat or nearly flat cellules were richly found. In the lymphocyte no cellule was observed and only dark small granules were dispersed in the substrate of protoplasm. 6. The mitochondria, like those in other cells, had clear border membranes. Inside, cristae mitochondriales of Palade were found between cellules and around the Golgi apparatus. In the lymphocyte they were found around the nucleus, near the nuclear recess and around the Golgi apparatus. 7. In the plasma cell flat cellules wers found to participate in the formation of the Russel body. In the lumen solid protein sustances were richly observed. This seemed to offer strong evidence to support the theory of antibody production in the tonsil plasma cells. 8. It is considerably difficult to relate the structure of a cell to its function. However, if the tonsil had immunological function, from the electron-microscopical structures, it would be inferred that the plasma cell plays a more important part than the lymphocyte.
Surveying the primary scoool science curriculum from the stanp-point of otorhinolaryngology, the author made it known how the otorhinolaryngological health education was arranged in the whole course of six years, and pointed out the errors and mistakes in the description, figures and pictures. And further he argued about the way that the health education and the comprehensive health care should be taken in practice both in the school and in the community.
After the injection of the radio-opaque media into the artery of the larynx of the fresh adult bodies (48 male cases and 12 female cases, totally 60 cases), the author studied the distribution and course of arteries by X-ray stereogram. The conclusions were as follows: 1) The larynx was supplied by A. laryngea cranialis, A. laryngea caudalis and R. cricothyreoideus. 2) Most of A. laryngea cranialis branched off from A. thyreoideus cranialis. Seldom A. laryngea cranialis branched off from external carotid artery in Japanese. (Fig.12) 3) In most of the cases A. laryngea cranialis penetrated through membrana thyreoidea. In about 20%, the artery penetrated through foramen threoidea especially in the left side. 4) In most of the cases R. cricothyreoideus branched off from A. thyreoidea cranialis and anastomosed with that of the other side, forming a circle of artery. 5) A. laryngea cranialis had 5 branches (R. ascendens, R. ventralis, R. dorsalis, R. medialis and R. descendens). The distribution of artery in the larynx were classified into 7 different types (Fig.4). Type I was most frequently found. Type 2 was next infrequency. In most of the cases, distribution of the artery was symmetrical. 6) Epigjoffis area was supplied chiefly by R. ascendens. The distribution was classified into 5 different types (Fig. 8). 7) Plica aryepiglottica area was supplied chiefly by R. ascendens. 8) Plica ventricularis area was supplied chiefly by R. medials and R. ventralis. 9) Ventriculus isryngis, vocal cord and anterior commisure areas were supplied chiefly by R. medialis, R. ventralis, R. dorsalis, R. cricothyreoideus and A. laryngea caudalis. 10) Laryngeal side of arytaenoid area was supplied chiefly by R. medialis, or R. medialis and R. dorsalis. Esophageal side was supplied by R. descendens and A. laryngea caudalis (Fig.10). 11) Subglottis area was supplied by R. cricothyreoideus, A. laryngea caudalis and R. desce ndens of A. laryngea cranialis. 12) Upon the movement of the larynx accompanied by the movement of vocal cord, respira tion and deglutition, redundance in the length of arteries was observed as well as the elasticity of soft tissue.
One hundred cases of chronic sinusitis, aged 6 to 15, were examined and histopathological study of the mucosa of the sinuses was made. Edema of the mucosa was much more remarkable than in adults, probally due to the exudative diathesis, which is common in children. No remarkable vascular change in lamina propria was observed and this was thought to be responsible for the spontaneous healing of the disease in children.
The ciliated epithelium of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses of man and of rabbits were studied under a phase contrast microscope, in physiological state and with physical and chemical stimulation. The results of 'the studies were as follows : 1) The ciliated cells were divided into two types: one was slender and 50 microns in length or longer, and the other was oval shaped and short. The former was mostly located in the vicinity of the ostium, while the latter was found mostly at the sinusal base. The ciliary movement was active in the former and slower in the latter. The average length of cilia was about 7 microns. 2) When the cilia were in motion, the granule-stream in cytoplasm was observed at the cuticular border of the cells. The granules were small in number in the area below the nuclei. 3) The cialiary movement was 380 to 460 per minute, and individual cell showed rotative or pendular movement, 4) In some of the cilia, the movement was not only .in horizontal direction but also vertical.The cells were flexible, and appeared to be regularly arranged in a small diamond shape fashion, one being at each of the four corners and one at the center of the diamond, here and there within the epithelium. 5) The waves of the ciliary movement were recognized as light and dark dimples. 6) The ideal solution for inclusion preservation of free cells was Ringer's solution with 50%serum, added and then Ringer's solution with 0.2% glucose. Distilled water and physiological saline solution were not satisfactory. 7) The optimal temperature for individual free cells of man was 37°C, and for the ciliated epithelium of rabbits 33°C, being generally unstable in high temperature and stable in low temperature. 8) The optimal pH was 7.6, being active in alkaline side and generally less active in acid side. 9) The bionergy was diminished and weakened in the mucosa of maxillary sinuses with pus retention. 10) In the mucosa in coses of allergic change, ciliary movement was active in some areas, but mostly depressed and loss of cilia was abserved in some areas. 11) When adrenalin was added, the ciliated epithelium shrank but ciliary movement for about 1% hours. 12) The ciliated epithelium reacted well to cocaine stimulation, and its cellular function stopped completely in several minutes after the stimulation. The change was irreversible to a reflux of physiological saline solution. 13) The ciliated epithelium showed the same behavior to protargol as it did to the physiological saline solution used for its inclusion; no influence of the drug solution was observed. 14) In case of stimulation by ammonium chloride, the cellular function instantly stopped, but was instantly recovered by a reflux of physiological saline solution.
Ciliatedepithelial cells of man and rabbits wer studied under a phase contrast microscope, producing allergic reaction in the cells. The findings were as follows: 1) Non-sensitized human ciliated epithelial tissue was destroyed by the the addition of 1: 10 or stronger histamine solution. With weaker solution than 1: 10, increased ciliary activity was noted. By the stimulation with 1: 2000 or stronger solution, sensitized epithelial tissue schowed shirinkage of the epithelial cells, increase of activity, cessation of activity, or destruction of cilia and cells. By the addition of 1: 1000 or stronger acetylcholine solution, non-sensitized epithelial tissue was destroyed by 1: 1000 or stronger solution, whereas sensitized epithelial tissue was destroyed by 1: 5000 or stronger solution. Tissue reaction to histamine and acetylcholine was closely resemble to allergic reaction, suggesting the production of these toxic substances in allergic reaction. 2) The antigens were added to sensitive human ciliated epithelial tissue from the sinues.Shrinkage of the cells, temporal increase of activity, enlargement of granules in cytoplasm, destruction of cilia, swelling of the cells and destruction of the cells. Similar changes were also observed when the antigen was added to the sinus mucosa of rabbit sensitized by egg-white albumin. 3) When the antigen was introduced into the paransal sinuses of sensitized rabbits, moderate decrease and weakening in the ciliary activity, shrinkage of the cells, and loss of cilia, were observed but not the remarkable allergic reactions observed under the microscope. This suggests that such a drastic allergic reaction seen in vitro does not take place in vivo. 4) Intra-arterial injection of the antigen to the sensitized rabbits showed cessation of the ciliary activity, falling- off of the cilia and atrophy of the cells. It can be presumed that such phenomena may develop also in man with food allergy, playing a significant role in the development of sinusitis. 5) In a state of vagotony, the ciliary activity was moderately decreased and weakened, but when adrenalin was added, the activity returned to healthy condition. When the allergen was again added, allergic reaction occurred more rapidly and intensely than in normal rabbits which had been sensitized. 6) The ciliary activity in adrenalectomized animals was moderately decreased and weakened, with an about20 percent loss of cilia and atrophy of the cells. The ciliary movement returned to normal when Intereniin was giverr. Tire ciliary activity was more depressed and the loss of cilia was more remarkable in animals sensitized after adrenalectomy. When the allergen was given, marked allergic reaction developed in brief periods of time. 7) In thyroidectomized animals, the ciliary activity was midly depressed, exhibited mild but neither the loss of cilia nor the shrinkage of the cells was noted. When the Thyracin was added, the ciliary activity returned to normal. In sensitized animals, also the ciliary activity showed mild 'depression and when the allergen was added, allergic reaction was developed.However the reaction in this instance was generally milder than that seen in adrenalectomizedt animals. 8) When the epithelium of the sinus mucous membrane in the cases with positive reaction to bacterial precipitation test was subjected to the action of the bacterial suspension of the same kind, allergic reaction developed likewise in the ciliary cells. The reaction continued longer and was weaker than that caused by other antigens. When the bacterial suspension was added to the sinus mucosa of the animals which showed positive precipitation test for the bacteria, allergic reaction was abserved in the ciliated epithelial cells. The reaction was milder and the duration of the reaction was longer, compared with the reaction to other antigens.
It has been observed frequently that inner ear trouble caused by the chronic inflammatorydiseases of the middle ear. The etiology has not been cleared but the extension of the inflammation by the destruction of the bone. Another possible route of spread of the disease is through the round and oval window which are located between the inner ear middle ear cavity. In the surgical treatment of the chronic otitis media, the condition of the round window has to be studied prior to the surgery disease how to diagnose any defect of round window for the purpose for the restoration of the hearing. For such purpose the permeability of round window was studied. One tenth cc of 10% cocaine hydrochloride was injected through the ear drum into the inner ear cavity of normal ear, middle ear disease and inner ear disease, and the symptons of autonomic nerve reaction was studied in conjunction with the change in the audiograph. Furthermore, various experimental hearing disordes were studied in the animals in order to endorse the results of the clinical experiments. The results of the investigations were as follows: The autonomic nerve reaction and subjective symptoms were obseeved in case with otosclerosis, sequela of otitis media, chronic otitia media with perforation, healthy ear, Meniere's syndrome and nerve deafness. In aminal experiment, symptoms appeared in conductive deafness (produced by cement injection), conductive deafness (otitis media), healythy ear, and perceptive deafness. The change on the audiograph:- In the cases with healthy ear and also perceptive deafness, the decrease in the thereshold both in air and bone conduction was observed below 2048 c.p.s and the increase in the threshold in air and bone conduction over 2048 c.p.s. In conductive deafnes due to inflammatory condition, the threshold was decreased below 3068 c.p.s in air and bone conduction. In those due to non-inflammatory condition, the change was minimal. Also, in case with remarkable autonomic nerve reaction, the increase of the threshold in higth tone, was observed. The tinnitus gave a certain influence to the audible threshold at the same frequency. Consequently, the cocaine solution being injected into the middle ear cavity may cause a certain trouble of inner ear passing through the round window. When there is a thickening of the membrane of round window such as in cases with chronic otitis media, in some cases the permeability is low and this must be kept in mind at the time of surgicol treatment. The condition of round window is clinically able to be evaluated by the injection of cocaine solution.
The author designed the apparatus which recorded the rotatory sensation in the pendular rotatory movement and investigated this sensation in normal and pathological cases. First, in normal cases the rotatory sensation was recorded as symmetrical curve in the pendular rotatory movement (amplitude 90°, period 20 sec.). The symmetricity of this sensation was always constant in the anterior, dorsal, left side and right side flexion of the head position. After the calorisation or Barany's test, the recorded rotatory sensation reveald 2 phases in the opposite direction, that is, peripheral I and central neural II. Secondly. in pathological cases which had the peripheral vestibular disturbances, the rotatory sensation to one side was dominant, so recorded curve revealed asymmetry. Its direction in most cases was coincident with the direction of the spontaneous nystagmus, if it existed. From the side-difference of the above mentioned record after the calorisation we could decide the difference of the labyrinth function.
In order to estimate the grade of speech disorders more objectively and quantitatively, the pronunciation test by means articulation scores were undertaken. According to the test method, degree of speech disorders was expressed quantitatively (%) by the number of syllables which were pronunced correctly. From the study of 123 cases of speech disorders including stammering, otogenic stammering, nasal speech, cleft palate, cancer of the maxilla on which total resection had been done, cancer of the vocal cords, substitute voice and stammering due to disease of the nervous system, following results were obtained. 1) According to the test, speech disorders were divided into three groups according to the severity, the mild group (71_??_96% correct articulation in pronunciation), the moderate group (36_??_70%), and the severe group (0_??_35%). 2) The correct articulation in pronunciation in various kind of speech disorders were examined and found as follows:- 3) Progress of healing, therapeutic effect of operation or other treatment in above mentioned cases were presumed from comparison of the test results obtained at any intervals. Moreover, from observation of the disturbed syllables of pronunciation it was possible to find the location of lesion in articulation. 4) From observation by means of the test, author advocated a new concepts of "Upsilotisanus", "Epsilotismus" and "Nuzismus".
Author studied the logics of masking bone conduction, and the phenomenon with regard to Weber test, especially from experimental and clinical stand point. Results obtained are as follows : 1) In order to mask the ear not to be tested, it is necessary to bear in mind the limitation of effectiveness of masking the ear dependent on the noise level, especially the limitation to the maximum noise level of the audiometer concerning on the three types of cases, i. e. binauraly perceptive. conductive deafness and one ear conductive the other perceptive. These limitation is able to be demonstrated by fomulation. 2) Bone conduction measurement under deficiency of masking represents shadow hearing curves which coincide with some limitation curves of masking. 3) Over masking cosists of peripheral and central elements, the former is masking opposite ear by the crossed air and bone conduction, the later through the crossed auditory nervous pathways. a) The central masking shows some frequency characteristics which are not remarkable as peripheral masking. b) The degree of effectiveness of the central masking is in proportion to the intensity of noise. c) Peripheral over masking tends to rise in the tested ear suffered from conducrive deafness, central over masking tends to rise at the case of which difference by bone conduction between both ears is large. 4) In Weber test a questionable point is that sometimes bone conduction may not be heard in the better ear by bone conduction. To study the etiology of this paradoxical phenomen, placing air conduction receivers on the both ears, either ear was heard tones near the threshold level, and the existence of false judgement on the audible side was proved. 5) In the both ears the least differenc between the intensity of two tones from which the feeling to hear in either ear arises is larger at higher intensity level than at lower, then Weber test is reasonable to be made at lower intensity level. 6) In one ear, the least intensity differences between two tones being able to differ are larger at the higher intensity level than the lower, and this relation also quantitatively coincides with the former experiment in the both ears.
Dihydrostreptomycin was administered daily intraperitoneally to pregnant adult female mice in various doses from the first day of pregnancy to partison.As the dose was increased, tendencies of shortening of pregnancy duration and decrease in fetal body weight at partition were observed.The examination of the fetal audition by Preyer's Reflex revealed no difference between the control group and the group to which dihydrostreptomysin was administered in large doses.
The author reports clinical and histopathological studies in seven cases with chronic suppuration of the temporal bone accompanied with severe hearing loss. The specimens examined were taken from each part the temporal bone at the radical or conservative radical operation (S. Niho) for osteomyelitis of temporal bone. (1) In recent years, since the advent of chemo-antibiotic therapy, the findings of the ear drum of patients with chronic suppuration of the temporal bone are less significant compared with histopathological findings of the specimens taken from the temporal bone. Of most importance are X-ray findings of the temporal bone especially in infants.' (2) Among the many reported methods of X-ray study of the temporal bone, Stenver's position is the best, and films taken in this position revealed more or less manifest pathological changes in all of these seven cases. (3) In prevention of chronic mastoiditis and petrositis it is necessary to eliminate disorders in the nose and throat, performing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy even if the patients are only one or two years of age. It is also necessary to perform attico-mastoidectomy or conservative radical operation for osteomyelitis of temporal bone, even in infants. (4) In such severe cases in young children, chronic pneumato-cellulitis, osteitis and osteomy-Pelitis are observed histopathologically. However, in. long standing cases especially these in whom more than twenty years .had elapsed, chronic pneumato-cellulitis is very rare and chronic osteitis and osteomyelitis are demonstrated. In the soft tissue, thickening of the epithelium, edematous swelling of subepithelial -and periosteal layers, infiltration of polymorphnuclear leucocytes, histiocytes, plasma cells, round cells and sometimes eosinophile leucocytes, granulation tissue and its organization, etc. are observed. As histopathological changes of the bony tsisue removed at the operation of the temporal.bone, the following, findings are revealed: marked degeneration, for example, pycnosis or. disappearance of the bone nuclei, indistinction or disappearance of bone lamellae, appearance of abnormal lamellae, chemical absorption of the bone (halisteresis), bone necrosis, absorption by osteoclasts (lacunar absorption), absorption by granulation tissue, widening of bone cavity, another type of porosis, widening of Haver's canaliculi and other bone canaliculi, increase of bone canalleuli in.a broad sense and of. the marrow tissue, osteoporosis, circulatory disturbance of fluid, .edema and fibrosis in the bone canaliculi in a broad sense or in, the marrow tissue, appearance of, osteoblasts, bone proliferation and appearance of osteoid-tissue, etc. Summarizing the above mentioned findings, bony damages. may disturb the healing of soft tissue, and circulatory disturbances of fluid in soft tissue may disturb the healing of the bone tissue. (5) As a result of existence of these pathological changes around the labyrinth for a long time, development of osteoporosis of the bony capsule of the semicircular canals with eventual labyrinthitis has been demonstrated. In the author's opinion similar pathological processes may occur sometimes in the cochlear capsule and in such incidences circulatory disturbances of fluid or inflammatory changes may have some influence on the cochlear function, which may become gradually less active and conductive deafness may become mixed deafness. Accordingly, for restoration of the cochlear function, it is of importance to eliminate such damaged bone tissue around the cochlea by performing the radical operation for osteomyelitis of temporal bone recommended by S. Niho.
1. We surveyed the literatures related to olfactometer. 2. We made the olfactometer with -various conditions especially pressure, velocity, Yeibperature, moistuer and diffusion. 3. We reported the normal minimal identifical odor by pressure of smell substanee. 4. We made olfactograph.