Unitary responses to sound stimulation obtained from the cerebellar cortex were investigated in cats. Results obtained are as follows : 1) Under barbiturate anesthesia, 2 out of 75 units responded to the sound stimulation, while in curraized cats 23 out of 100 units responded. 2) Two types of response were recorded. One was a response to the onset of the stimulation, "on response", and the other was a response during the stimulation, "continuos response". 3) In some units which showed "continuos response", the number of spikes responding to tone bursts of constant intensity increased and decreased quency were made from the responses of 11 units. ency range and were at high intensity levels of characteristic frequencies with one exception. The exception showed relatively low thresholds and the threshold at its characteristic frequency, 9, 000c.p.s., was 20db S.P.L. 5) At some frequencies some units responded to strong stimulation and did not show any response to weaker stimulation, but still weaker stimulation caused responses again.
Electron microscope observations of cochlear karya of almost all nerve cells were enclosed by a myelin sheath. The perikaryal sheath is composed myelins, continuous or interchangeable with each other. The former consists of multiple layers of mbrane. The thickness of each layer of the satellite cell cytoplasm shows considerable variation. It may be particularly thick in the outermost layer of the cytoplasmic lamellae, where the nucleus and other intracellular structures of the satellite are located. The cytoplasm may become thin and even disappear with formation of a thicker and denser membrane by fusion of the inner and the outer plasmalemmata of the cytoplasmic sheet. The semi_compact myelin is formed by stratification of such denser membranes. In the semi_compact myelin, however, the interval than that in the compact myelin surrounding nerve Other submicroscopic structures of both nerve and satellite cells, especially mitochondria, inclusion bodies, multivesicular bodies and presumptive gly cogen particles, have been also discussed in this paper.
The investigation was carried out for the purpose of clarifying the deviation of the angular localization by using various types of hearing aids, and the relation between the microphone's position of a binaural hearing aid and its directional hearing. The procedure was performed at 9 locations on a half circle in front of the subject by means of pointing out the sound source. The subjects were normal hearing adults and various types of hearingimpaired. The results were as follows : i) The error of angular localization at each test location was shown on the deviation curves in 7 types, and the results were checked for its mechanism. ii) In cases of using the monaural hearing aid, the deviation of angular localization increased at the contralateral side of the hearing aid. In cases of the binaural hearing aid, it increased at bolh lateral sides iii) The acuity of directional hearing by using the binaural hearing aid is maintained much better than that of the monaur al aid. In cases of binaural hearing aids, it is advisable for the microphones to be worn on the bilateral temporal parts of the head, because of the important role of the shadow effect of the head for directional hearing by using the hearing aid. iv) In cases of the Y-cord type hearing aid, the directional hearing acuity was completely disturbed. v) The efficiency of the hearing aid for the directional hearing is similar to that for the binaural listening.
Two hundred and four of the postoperative nths to 10 years aftet operation were obserbed. The result were as follows : 1) Difficulty of postoperativ epithelisation of brane perfonation seen in 29 cases, and 62 cases (30.4%) in total. 2) Difficulty of postoperative epithelisation of mastoid cavity in the large mastoid cavity was seen in 28 cases (49.1%) of 57 cases. In the middle large cavity this was seen in 28 cases (27%) of 96 cases and in the small cavity 6 cases (11.7%) of 51 cases. cavity would apted difficulty of postoperative epit. helisption of mastoid cavity. mastoid cavity in the large external auditory canal was seen in 21.7%, and 34.7% in the small Canals. Largeness of the external auditory canal was shoon to influence the dryness of postoperatoid cavity. 4) There was no relation between difficulty of postoperative epithelisation of mastoid cavity and cultivated bacillus. 5) The fungus was detected in 26 cases from the postopestoperative mastoid cavity and external auditory canal, but there was no significance as to toid cavity. Saprophtes was mainly foud.
Besides facial disfigurement, marked impairement of speech and food intake are difficult problems for patients who undergo radical maxillectomy for maxillary sinus cancer. The main problems lies in the open communication between the oral cavity and the orbitomaxillary defect. Prosthesis is widely used but not without its shortcomings. In order to solve these problems, plastic closure of the palatal defect by means of autograft is desirable. For this reason, authors have been trying a method of surgical closure of the palatal defect using nasal sptum. The principle of this surgery is to transect three fourth of circumference of the septum and infracture it at its base so that the septum can be turned to the side of palatal defect and seal off the communictation between the nose and the oral cavity. Additional skin flap is prepared from face near the orbitomxillary opening. Improvement of speech quality is remarkable after this surgery. Muffling of voice always present with prosthesis was eliminated almost completely. Complications due to removal of the septum are not remarkable. All of our six patients operated during the past two years are satisfied with this surgery. For selected case this type of plastic surgery will be a great aid for patients in their postoperative rehabilitation.
Incidence, causes and symptoms of retarded development of speech were studied in 1114 children just three years old living in Matsumoto City, and the following results were obtained: (1) Out of a total of 1114 children, Congenital deafness 1 case Mental defficiency without hearing impairment and suspicious cases 6 cases Cerebral palsy 2 cases Retarded development of speech without mental defficiency as well as hearing impairment 30 cases Stuttering 13 cases (2) Children of low birth weight were found more frequently in the group of retarded develop- ment of speech than in the normal group, and this was statistically significant. (3) Neonatal asphyxia was also significantly frequent in the group of retarded development of speech.