20 patients with sudden deafness were examined by electrocochleography (ECochG). The cochlear potentials such as AP, CM and SP were investigated both at the early stage of the disease and 2 to 4 weeks later. There was a significant difference in the cochlear potentials between the cases with remarkable hearing improvement and with improvement. In all cases whose SP/AP ratio was more than 0. 27, hearing improvement was obtained. The SP/AP ratio returned normal (about 0. 25), after the hearing recovery. It was concluded that the SP/AP ratio in ECochE might be very helpful in studying the prognosis of sudden deafness.
A newly devised instrument to quantitate saccadic eye movements was presented. This device offered the following advantages. 1) The instrument had 4 random patterns, consisting of a series of 30 stepwise jumps of random amplitude (10._??_60.). 2) Stimulus intervals could vary continuously among the ranges from several sec. to hundreds of msec.. 3) Calibration could be simply performed automatically with this device. 4) A series of 30 stepwise jumps of random amplitude and random intervals was produced with turning the DRIVE MODE SELECTOR into the MANUAL. 5) On-line analysis of saccadic eye movements using a computer could be feasible with this instrument.
The influence of the two band pass filters (2-200Hz, 25-200Hz) on the middle components of the averaged auditory evoked potentials was analyzed. The subjects were 6 children under 2 years old, 6 children 3 to 4 years old, 6 between 5 to 7 years old, and 6 adults. All of them were proved to have normal hearing. Tone pips of 1000Hz were presented at 20, 40 and 60dB above the mean subjective thresholds of normal adults. The filter with the passband of 25-200 Hz decreased the amplitude and the detectability of Po and increased those of Pa. Na was little influenced by either filters. However, Nai of elder subjects became more prominent than Nat by using the filter of 25-200Hz. At present, the most suitable index of the objective audiometry in infants is Po-Na, and for detecting these components, a filter with low cut off frequency over 20Hz is not recommended.
Kawasaki disease represents group of symptoms reported by KAWASAKI in 1967 for the first time in the world as Muco-Cutaneous Lymph node Syndrome (MCLS). The syndrome is developed in pediatric patients with acute feverish symptoms, affecting the muco-cutaneous lymph nodes, and it has most frequently been reported in Japan, more than 10, 000 cases to date. Hardly any studies, however, have been conducted on it from the otorhinolaryngological viewpoints. Our present report dealed with the findings of the tympanic membrane in the patients with Kawasaki disease. The results were as follows: 1) Abnormalities were noted in the tympanic membrane of 23 out of 40 ears of 20 patients affected by Kawasaki disease on the first visit at our clinic. 2) The abnormal findings of the tympanic membrane were characterized by dilation and hyperemia of fine capillaries in the tympanic membrane, especially in the region of A. manubrialis externa, as well as in the transitional region between the ear drum and skin of the external auditory meatus. 3) Three cases showed the normal ear drum in one side and abnormal in the other. 4) No correlation was found between the stage of illness of Kawasaki disease and the findings of the tympanic membrane.
Medial view graphic reconstruction of the vestibular aqueduct was created for better understanding of the anatomy of the vestibular aqueduct. Serial horizontal sections with H-E staining of the human temporal bones were used for the study. The outlines of the method were as follows. After making cochlear graphic reconstruction, actual lengths of the vestibular aqueduct and the posterior canal in the horizontal section were projected onto the line connecting the middle ear-side and the posterior cranial fossa-side of the Corti's organs at the basal turn. The method of this projection was established by modifying Schuknecht's cochlear reconstruction method, especially that for the hook portion. Repeating this procedure on every sections, a medial view graphic reconstruction figure including the vestibular aqueduct, the posterior canal and the cochlea was obtained. With this method, several anatomical variations of the vestibular aqueducts in their shape, course, and location were observed and reported. In addition, the authors found that this method was also useful for avoiding the erroneous impressions in the graphically reconstructed vestibular aqueduct, which might be induced by the difference among various horizontal sectioning angles.
The diagnostic value of labial salivary gland biopsies has been assessed in the literature since the first report by Meskin and others. Many investigators reported that the histopathology of minor salivary gland of patients with Sjogren's disease might be well correlated with that of other major salivary gland.
Epistaxis in children is most commonly encountered in the daily practice of clinical medicine. The age of onset of epistaxis in our clinic was from one to four years, and a repeated nose bleeding was continued until the age of 10 years. The' number of patients increase especially in summer every year, but the incidence of epistaxis has not been changed in our clinic for the past ten years. The ratio of male and female was 3 : 1. Epistaxis mostly occurred at night, but some in the morning or midday. The rhinological examination revealed a localized inflam mation in the mucous membrane of Little's area in 80% and an allergic change in 20% of patients. Bacteriological studies showed staphylococcal infection at Little's area in 72% of the patients. Pathological studies showed a infiltration of eosinophils in the inflamed mucosa. Treatments which were used in our clinic consisted of antibiotics, antihistamine and antiplasmin