Although the inner ear is the organ different from the kidney, it has been thought, for a long time, that the malformation of the inner ear is associated with that of the kidney, that the inner ear damage is related to the renal damage which is induced by the administration of aminoglycoside antibiotics, and recently that there is some relation between the kidney and the inner ear in the auditory disorder and equilibrium disturbance of the patients with hemodialysis. The administration of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) to rats can give rise to a pathosis like lipoid nephrosis. It remains to be solved, however, what change in the inner ear is caused by its administration at the time. In view of the fact, an attempt has been made to examine not only the state of the inner ear of a living body with nephrotic syndrome but also the timehonored problematic relation between the kidney and the inner ear. In respect to the auditory disorder, observations were made on Preyer's reflex and auditory brainstem response (ABR), and further, the morphological observations of the inner ear were made by the use of a light microscope and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. In addition, for the purpose of observing the changes in the blood-cochlea barrier, a tracer study was tried by means of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and iron dextran. As a result, the following observations were obtained. 1. No significant difference between normal rats and rats with nephrotic syndrome in the threshold of Preyer's reflex and ABR determination was noted. 2. In the cochlea, a main change was noted in the stria vascularis which is said to be similar to the nephron, as follows. (1) The changes of element in the basement membrane of the capillary of stria vascularis. (2) A remarkable swelling of the intermediate cells. (3) Changes in the cytoplasma near the free surface of the marginal cells; vacuolization; a remarkable increase in lysosome; severance in the plasma membrane; and the physically pressed picture induced by the swelling of the intermediate cells. 3. When HRP was intravenously injected as a tracer, the infiltration of HRP into the intercellular spaces through the capillary lumens of the stria vascularis in normal cases was observed but the infiltration of HRP to the endolymphatic spaces was not observed. In the cases with nephrotic syndrome, the infiltration of HRP from the marginal cells to the endolymphatic space was noticed. In other words, it was demonstrated that the function of the stria vascularis changes and consequently the endolymphatic composition changes. 4. While the change in the maculae was slight in the vestibule, a remarkable vacuolization was seen in the Type I hair cell. The above-mentioned results suggest that a living body showing nephrotic syndrome could have auditory and vestibular disturbance.
Distribution of beclomethasone dipropionate (BD) aerosol particles in tnhe masal cavity was studied. A simulated nasal cavity made of acryl resin (Kohken Co. Ltd.) and modified by QSS (Kohken) was used for the experiment. Seven superficial hollows were made at the anterior portion of the lateral wall, the anterior, middle and posterior portions of the middle and inferior turbinates, respectively. These hollows were filled with round shaped filter paper, 5mm in diameter and 0.7mm in thickness, for the measurement of the BD concentration. The filter paper was abstracted in 5ml methanol and the solution was then measured by an automatic spectro-photometer. The concentration of BD was exgressed in absorbance since the concentration of a solution was directly proportional to its absorbance. BD was delivered by means of gas, liquid and powder. No significant difference was found among these three preparations. The highest concentration was usually found at the anterior portion of the middle turbinate in accordance with the long axis of the aerosol adaptor. In general, continuous stream of the air at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0l/sec from the posterior outlet of the nose little affected the amount of the deposited particles at each portion. The particles once deposited at the interior part of the nasal cavity might be again conveyed posteriorly by the inhaled air, ciliary movement and diffusion in the mucous layer. This mechanism probably supplements uneven distribution of the particles sprayed into the nasal cavity.
A case of Cole-Engman syndrome which is a rare and fatal genodermatosis, characterised by the triad of reticulated hyperpigmentation of the skin, nail dystrophy, and leukoplakia of the mucous membrane was reported. The patient was 16-year-old who had shown reticulated skin pigmentation on the bilateral ear, the neck, and the anterior chest, and atrophy and deformation of the nails for 5 years. Last year, folds and ulcers of the tongue emerged associated with pancytopenia, splenomegaly and hyperhidrosis in the regions of palms and soles. Unfortunately, there was no effective treatments for this disease.
Herpes simplex virus was inoculated intracerebrally to produce acute viral infection in the inner ear of suckling and adult mice. The inner ear pathology and routes of infection to the inner ear were studied using histopathological observations and immunofluorescent antibody staining technique. The following results and conclusions were obtained. 1) In suckling mice, the viral antigens were frequently demonstrated in the spiral ganglion and neural elements of the modiolus and internal auditory canal, and less frequently in the vestibular ganglion and the facial nerve. No viral antigens were found in the stria vascularis, Reissner's membrane and immature organ of Corti. 2) Histopathologically, specific inclusion-bearing cells were seen in the areas where the viral antigens were detected. 3) In suckling mice, demonstration of the viral antigens in the scala tympani depended on the amount of the inoculated solution which contained a constant viral titer. 4) No specific fluorescent staining was seen in any structure of the inner ear of adult mice in spite of wide-spread viral meningoencephalitis. 5) It is reasonable to presume that herpes simplex virus spreads from the infected meninges to the spiral ganglion and further to the organ of Corti at a more advanced stage. 6) It is evident that susceptibility to herpes simplex virus infection in the inner ear is agerelated.