The author studied postmortal changes of the Corti's organ of guinea pigs, using a phase contrast microscope. Microscopical preparations of the Organ of Corti were made from the animals immediately and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 hours after death by air embolism. The sensory and supporting cells were respectively sepprated from Corti's organ by means of micro-surgical technique. The results were as follows: 1. Until 2-3 hours after death, the external and internal hair cells showed no remarkable changes except for swelling of mitochondria, however, after 3 hours there found a tendency of swelling of cytoplasma, mitochondria and nuclei; the nuclear membrane became brilliant and double contoured. After 12 hours, the cells were deformed and vacuoles were found in the cytoplasma. 2. Pillar cells and basilar menbrane were not so markedly changed until 6-12 hours after death. 3. Deiter's and Hensen's cells showed no remarkable changes within 3-4 hours after death, and thereafter postmortal changes in cytoplasma and nuclei of these cells occurred progressively, but even after 24 hours the cells were not disintegrated. The author concluded that the phase contarst microscope is most available to make morphological observation on true postmortal changes of the Corti's organ without being affected by fiexation and staining.
From the Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Hirosaki University (Director: Prof. S. Katagiri) The author studied nucleic acids in the inner-ear cells of guineapigs after exposure to the whitenoise of 110-120 phon for 56 hours in a week. For the cytochemical investigations various staining and confirmative methods were employed. The results were as follows: 1) In the hair-cells, especially the outer hair cells, DNA in the nucleus and RNA in the nucleus and cytoplasm diminished in quantity. Most of spiral ganglion cells showed a decrease of DNA in the nucleus and RNA in the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the cells of stria vascularis RNA was slightly decreased. 2) Decrease of DNA and RNA was remarkable in the cells of the basal and the 2nd turn of the cochlea.
From the Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Hirosaki University (Director: Prof. S. Katagiri) Using. Koana Naora's ultraviolet-microspectrophotometer, the author observed ultraviolet absorption in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the inner-ear cells of guineapigs, which were exposed to the white noise of 110-120phon for 56 hours in a week. The results were as follows: 1) Decrease of RNA in the cytoplasm of the outer hair-cells was most pronounced in the basal turn and on the contrary slight in the apical turn of the cochlea. 2) RNA in the cytoplasm of the inner hair-cells showed slight increase in every turn of the cochlea. 3) RNA in the cells of the stria vascularis diminished remarkably in the basal turn compared with the other turn. 4) In the spiral ganglion cells, decrease of the nucleic acids in the cytoplasm and nucleus was most considerable in the basal and the 2nd turn, especially in the latter. However, the decrease of. the nucleic acids was not so pronounced as seen in Hydens reports.
Anther observed the passability of the human cochlear aqueduct by using the method to inject the methylen blue solution into the window of cochlea. The results were as follows. 1) On the specimen picked out from dead body which had long time after death, it is obvious that mistaken result may take by post mortem changes. 2) Out of the 68 specimens which picked out during the 12th hours after death, 42 per cent of cases was passable under 30mmHg pressure. 3) Though the duct might be pass way of blood, bacteria and cerebrospinal pressure, auther faild to proove the relationship between cochlear aqueduct and hearing function of cochlea. 4) In the specimens of under 20years old, 75 per cent of cochlear aqueduct had free communication, but in the specimens of over 21 years old only 32per cent shows the passability. The remarkable difference between both groups were believed.
The author carried out the Daito's inner ear irrigating fixation method with several solutions of fixation in rabbits with the object of observing its influence on the labyrinth tissues. The results obtained were as follows. (1) Alcohol, 10% Formalin, MUller's Regaud's, and Orth's solutions were inadequate for the solution of irrigating fixation. (2) Fine constructions were good observated with Zenker's solution, next with Heidenhain's and Romeis's Susa solutions at every parts of labyrinth, that are organ of Corti. Spiral ganglion cells, Vestibule and semicircular canal, Statolithe and vestibular ganglion cells. (3) Atrophic pictures fixated with Wittmaack's solution and its similar solutions had its faults that were indistinct of their fine strucetures. On the other hand, atrophic pictures mean normal cells reactions.
The author studied on the various basic methods to measure the difference of biaural pitches by using 35 healthy subjects. These methods were clinically applied to 1) 32 cases of Menieres disease 2) 10 cases of nerve deafness 3) 10 cases of conductive deafness, and following results were obtained. Of 32 cases of Menieres disease. 15 were fresh cases 17 were obsolete cases. 12 of 15 fresh cases and 2 of 17 obsolete cases revealed Pathological Diplacusis (Diplacusis index is over ±2%), In 15 cases of Pathological Diplacusis 12 cases showed higher pitch on diseased ear than on healthy side, and 3 cases showed the reverse. The former group has greater difference of the pitch of both ears. The audiogram of Pathological Diplacusis cases revealed reversible hearing loss of low frequency in most cases and closed relationship to Recruitment was seen. However, there noted no parallel relationship with Pitch Difference Limen. Therefore, above mentioned phenomenon is considered to be explained by disturbance of the sense of hearing due to Endolymphatic Hydrops. This phenomenon was not comfirmed at any other types of hard of hearing.
The author made investigations on the existence of the opening of the eustachian tube of the cats and the guinea pigs. The studies were done on two muscles, the tensor and levator veli palatini, . which innervated coming from the trigeminal and facial nerves. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Owing to the stimulus of the trigeminal nerve III, the opening of the eustachian tube were 49 cases or 76.6% among of 64 cases. 2) Owing to the stimnlus of the facial nerve, the opening eustachian tube were 4 cases or 7.6% among of 52 cases. 3) According to the stimulus of both nerve same time, the opening of the eustachian tube were 80.5%, in the cases of no opening of the tube by single stimulus of the trigeminel and the facial nerves. 4) On account of the above results, most important muscle were the tensor veli palatini among of the eustachian tube muscles, however the levator veli palatini had the function of the opening of the eustachian tube owing to concerted retraction function.
Authors constructed the x-ray tube which could reduce the focus to 0.3x 0.3mm on the pinhole camera. With such a tube, it was investigated the necessary distance between the focus of the tube and patient for the pyramidal part of the temporal bone to be included in the shadow of the orbital edge. Owing to the front-occipital photographing-with the variable focus x-ray tube, which could be reconstructed at a low cost, it was able to obtain more easily the sharp shadows of the internal ear, pericarotic and peritubal cells which had not been expected with the permanent focus x-ray tube used commonly.
A case of the Wallenberg's syndrom owing to thromboangiitis obliterans, A male aged 48 years, was reported and the author studied particularly on disturbans of equilibrium by functional test, from which could not find the findings of celleberal lesion and could suspect vestibular disturbans. Concerning the obliterated vessels, A. vertebralis and A. cerebellaris inferior posterior were confirmed by angiography.
In this paper the following two important problems were subjected for discussion: 1) Whether the membrane of the sinus in chr. sinusitis must be detached or not? 2) Which procedure is preferable in sinuectomy, osteoplasty or obliterating operation? Concerning the first problem, the author has stated that excavation of the sinus mucosa should depend on the character and grade of changes in the sinus membrane. As for the second problem, he has expressed his opinion as follows: In the frontal sinus it is un-necessary to make osteoplasty of the sinus, except in the extremely pneumatized cases, in which osteoplastic procedure on the anterior wall of the anterior ethmoid sinus may be needed to secure its cleansing. As for the maxillar sinus its postoperative behavior must be different from the frontal sinus. The author consider that the maxillar sinus must be reserved to keep postoperatively the communication between the maxillar sinus and ethmoidal sinus, leading to the inferior nasal meatus provide better communicating rout for the ethmoidal sinus than middle nasal meatus. For this purpose he has attempted osteoplasty of the maxillar sinus in the combinated sinusitis. The author emphasizes that the 1.5 to 2.0cm long eye brow incision in the one third is large enough to operate on the frontal sinus or the anterior ethmoid sinuse, which was previously already operated transmaxillary as completly as possible.
Authors reported a cured case of the cholesteatoma of the paranasal sinuses. The case was that of a 58 years old, male, with chief complains of swelling and pain of the left cheek. The concha of the left nose was atrophic, and the roentogenologic photographs showed that the left maxillary bone was destroyed. At the operation it was observed that the maxillary sinus was filled by cholesteatoma which continously invaded to the posterior ethomoidal sinuses. The left paranaral sinuses were opened, and cholesteatoma was extracted. The disease has never recurred for the period of seven years after operation. Histo-pathologically, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus showed the metaplasia of epithelium, and enormous keratinized substance on the epithelial lining. Furthermore the many cholesterin crystals and the foreign body giant cells were observed in the subepithelial layer. But in the mucous membrane of another sinuses, any pathological findings were not found. Therefore, it was considered that the cholesteatoma occured primary in the maxillary sinus, and invaded into the posterior ethomidal sinuses. Stacke reported that the epithelial metaplasia due to atrophic rhinitis was one of the pathogenesis of the paranasal sinuses cholesteatoma. The atrophy of the left nasal concha was observed in this patient, but could not be determined this finding was either cause of the disease or the secondary change followed to cholesteatoma of the maxillary sinus.
The author tried the weber's test through the use of audiometer on many healthy and deafened persons, finding that the results were more exact than by the tuning fork, when it was performed, at the level of the minimal audible threshold or at the adequate intensity. Through such methods, when we consider the 0-10db hearingloss as healthy, the 38% of the healthy persons feeled the tone in the middle of their heads through the total range of all frequencies, and about the 80% at the same frequencies. On those cases, the influence of the pneumatisation cells of the head was not easy to decide. But such factor must be also calculated in the causes of the error of the test. The lateralisation to the deafened ear was considered to occur proportionally to the results on the healthy persons. But the author reached the conclusion, that the cause of the lateralisation might be mainly due to the mastoid process, the difference of the bone conduction precision thresholds of the both ears, through the accurate measurement. And it was considered, that the value of the difference, which might cause it most exactly, might be more over 20db.
Part I. Clinical observations on the abnormal styloid process. Thirteen cases were observed. The findings were as follows: 1) 69% were belonged to females. 1 2) 69% was observed on the left side, while 15% on the bilateral sides. 3) The most prominent subjective symptom was pharyngeal tenderness which was found in all cases. Other complaints were uncomfortable feeling in the pharynx (46%), neck pain (38%), stiff shoulders (38%) and pharyngeal aches (15%). Objectively all the processes were palpable in the lateral side of the pharynx. 4) Five patients, of which one had bilateral involvement, were cured by peroral resections, and two others improved by conservative measures. Part II. Morphological observations of the styloid process. The observations were performed on the styloid processes of necropsy skull specimens. 1) 54% showed "Curved Form" The next common shape was "Straight Form", and "Bending Form" represented 8.1%. 2) The average length of the styloid processes was 24.1mm in the virtual and 15.7mm in the apparent, and showed the increase of the length following to the age up to the fourth decade of life. 3) The forward angle was 26°51', the medial angle 28°20'. Part III. Roentgenography of the styloid process. Roentgenological studies of skull specimens revealed that the best view of the process throuth the sagittal direction could be obtained with the aural vertical plane (which is perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal plane and crossing the center of each opening of external auditory canal) held parallel to the film and a central X-ray beam projected vertically through the point where the maxillary outline meets the parasagittal plane passing 6mm inside of the lateral orbital rim. Part IV. Roentgenological stedies of the cases of the abnormal styloid procss. Radiological findings of 10 cases examined from the standpoint of the observations described in Parts II and III were as follows: 1) Thare was no abnormality in the over-all morphology of the processes. 2) In each case the length of the process exceeded the value of normal individuals by 23mm in males and 19mm in females on the average. 3) The correlation between the angle and length of the process seemed quite important for the occurrence of the complaints, and there were three cases in which the angles out of proportion to the length of the process were detected.