To clarify the function of the vestibular nuclei an experimental study was made. Nystagmic responses of the cats were observed when the unilateral vestibular nuclei were stimulated electrically. And then the point having responded to electrical stimulation was coagulated. Spontaneous and positioning nystagmus was observed. After the experiment, the animal was killed and its brain was removed in order to examine the coagulated point histologically. The following results were obtained: 1) Relation between electrical stimulation to the vestibular nuclei and nystagmic responses: When an optional point of the vestibular nucleus out of four vestibular nuclei (nucleus medialis, nucleus dorsalis, nucleus spinalis, nucleus lateralis.) was electrically stimulated, a type of nystagmic response was observed. On the other hand, when a certain point of other vestibular nucleus was electrically stimulated, the same type of nystagmic response was noticed. For example, horizontal nystagmus was caused not only by stimulation to the nucleus dorsalis, but also by stimulation to the nucleus lateralis. 2) Positioning nystagmus: Positioning nystagmus had latency period of 1 to 2sec., and continued a few seconds, and then disappeared. Nystagmus caused by electrical stimulation had _??_ tendency to be influenced by head positioning. Moreover, horizontal nystagmus was much influenced when the head was suddenly turned to the right side or left. On the other hand, vertical nystagmus was also done when the head was turned around the sagittal plane.
The followings are essentials of my report under the above mentioned subject, especially of the relationship between the mucosa structure and hemorrhagic tendency. Optical and electron-microscopic observations were made of the mucosae removed from the Kiesselbach's area, believed to be almost normal, in fifteen cases with slight deviation of the nasal septum. 1 The mucosae at the Kiesselbach's area are morphologically characterized with the presence of intraepithelial blood vessels and a covering of stratified epithelium with poorly developed connetive structure. 2. The electron-morphologically established existence of intraepithelial blood vessels and poorly developed connection of epithelial cells of the mucosa at the Kiesselbach's area is considered to provide an important morphological evidence for the cause of hemorrhage at the area.
Using CdS, the nasal reflexion photoelectric plethysmograph (R.P.P.) was made. This apparatus, tiny and extremely sensitive. recorded accurately the movement of blood flow through the mucous membrane of the human inferior turbinate as volume pulse. The tracing was simple and accurate. The following results were obtained. 1) Two kinds of wave fluctuations were found on the R.P.P. of the nasal turbinate mucous membrane. One is the so-called respiratory fluctuation without having changes in the amplitude of volume pulse, and the other is the spontaneous fluctuations of longer periodicity at the time of quiet respiration of healthy persons. Respiratory fluctuation was remarkable when the inspiral air was cold. but it was not so remarkable on the finger R.P.P. Spontaneous fluctuations of the inferior turbinate on both sides are. in many cases. synchronous but it is not so between nose and fingers. The movements are bigger in nervous persons. but are seldom found in arteriolosclerosis. 2) The vasomotor reflex which was brought about by means of deep breathing. breath holding. mental calculation. cold stimulation etc. showed remarkable vasoconstricting tendency on the finger plethysmogramm. However. the tendency of plethysmogramm of the nasal mucosa was rather weak and the total blood volume was considerably redu ced. Cold stimulation was especially. characterized by an increase of blood volume of the nasal inferior turbinate. 3) The wave-forms of the R.P.P. of inferior turbinate showed more even rounded curve with less pinnales and dales than those of fingers. This fact is supposed to be attributable to the effect of endocardial pressure. which influences stronger nasal inferior turbinate than on fingers. 4) It can be said. therfore. that the peripheral blood circulation in the nasal mucoa of inferior turbinate regurates itself by virtue of the A.V.A.. the polster-artey and the sinus plexus etc.
The cases of carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses were irradiated preoperatively with Teleobalt, and the effects of the preoperative irradiation were studied clinically and histopathologically. Tumor doses of the irradiation were measured with the miniature glass rods and ranged from 2000 rads to 4000 rads. Cases were maxillectomized within three weeks after irradiation, and the insufficiency of the doses of the preoperative irradiation was supplied post-operatively. Any outstanding change of the hematological and biochemical finding of the serum after the irradiation was not observed except for slight leucopenia. Even severe radiomucositis subsided usually within two weeks after irradiation, and no harmful effect to surgical procedure was affected. However, amount of the total blood loss during operation was somewhat greater than no-irradiated cases. In a few cases radionecrosis of the bones as well as the soft tissaes were observed. Postoperative courses were deranged in such cases. Histologically all cases were squamous cell carcinoma. The degeneration rate of tumor cells was increased, in parallel with the increase of the tumor doses. The remarkable findings of the invasion of the tumor cells into the endoneural and perineural lymphatic vessels were observed in five cases. This form of the extension of the tumor cells were considered as the cause of the obstinate neuralgia or numbness.
A case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal and parnasal cavities of a woman aged 21 is reported. Repeated histopathological examinations revealed chronic inflammation and chondroma, but the biopsy taken preoperatively, showed chondrosarcoma. In spite of the surgical and radiological treatment and chemotherapy, the patient's condition gradually deteriorated with recurrences. Approximately 5 years after the onset of the disease she died of encephalomalacia due to contigious infiltration of the tumor. Some of previous literatures on this subject are briefly discussed.
The present study was made to investigate the course and termination of the projection fibers from the laryngeal motor cortex to the brain stem in the cat. With square wave electrical stimulation applied to the surface of the cortex, the cortical area which gave evoked muscle actvity in the vocalis muscle was detected and destructed with a suction tip. The laryngeal motor area thus obtained was located in the anterior sigmoid gyrus. Following the destruction, the animal was kept alive for seven days and then sacrificed by vital fixation method. The whole brain was fixed with 10% formalin for over three months and serial frozen sections were made. The specimens were stained using the Nauta- Gygax method for observation. The followings are the summary of the results and considerations. 1. It was noted that there was no direct connection of the projection fibers to the nucleus ambiguns which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Therefore, intercalated neurons were considered to be connected to the nucleus ambiguus. Their exact locality was discussed. 2. Bilateral projection pattern to the brain stem was proved anatomically, though amount of degenerating axons were revealed to show difference on each level. 3. Many degenerating axons were observed in the brain stem reticular formation and their termination showed peculiar pattern. 4. A functional interrelationship between the axonal termination in the reticular formation and respiratory center was discussed.
Pitch perturbations of sustained vowels were examined on ten normal subjects and fifteen deaf children. Vibrations of the vocal cord were induced by a condenser microphone attached on the skin over the frontal wall of the trachea. Fundamental pitches were extracted by a pitch indicator. Results obtained were as follows: (1) In normal subjects 1) Fundamental pith of sustained vowels ranged from 100 to 150 cps in male and 200 to 250 cps in female owing to each suject. 2) Pitch perturbations of fundamental tone were remarkable at the onset and end of voicing but in the intermediate time course they seemed considerably stable. 3) Perturbation widths were measured within ten per cent of the mean fundamental pitch in every subjects. 4) There was some relation between the mean fundamental pitch and perturbation width. 5) Duration of sustained voice gave no effect on perturbations of fundamental pitch. (II) In deaf children 1) Fundamental pitch showed much difference among vowels and subjects, especially remarkably in younger group. 2) Perturbation widths were mostly from ten to fifteen per cent of the mean fundamental pitch, which far exceeded that of normal subjects. 3) There found positive relationship between the mean fundamental pitch and perturbation width in younger group. 4) In older group pith perurbation grew larger as the duration of sustained voice. 5) In more than seventy per cent of all cases perturbation of pitch and voice pressure were mutually related through voicing. These results were discussed from a point of the aural regulatory function of phonatory mechanism.
On 346 students of a junior high school in Tokyo, the authors made morphogical and phoniatric study with special reference to statistical difference between age and both sexes. It was noted that the mutation occurred in earlier period than previously reported and, in female students, the mutation was thought to occur prior to the menarche. It was further considered that the mutation could not be elicited only by morphological development of cartilagenous frame work of the larynx, but other developmental factors should play important roles in the mechanism of the mutation. The necessity of vocal hygene during the mutational period was particularly emphasized
Since Blohmke and Toda described it, the fact has been known that the horizontal nystagmus of the eyes can be induced by electrical stimulation of the meso-diencephalon in rabbits. According to the method described by Lachmann et al, who did a great deal of research in this field, “the nystagmogenic area” was electrically stimulated in 26 rabbits. In addition to the electrical stimulation, they were given optokinetic and labyrinthine stimulations (1°/sec2 in 90see), simultaneously or independently. It was evaluated how the central nystagmus, which was induced by electrical stimulation to this area, interacted with the optokinetic and labyrinthine nystagmus and, furthermore, how the nystagmogenic area related to the physiological cooperation of the visual organ and the vestibular organ i.e. the so-called “optic-vestibular coordination”, in development of nystagmus. Following conclusions were obtained. 1. Central nystagmus is always facillitated by optokinetic stimulation irrespective of the direction of the optokinetic stimulation. 2. Central nystagmus is sometimes facillitated and sometimes inhibited by the labyrinthine stimulation depending on the direction of the stimulus. The effect is observed even if the subliminal rotation, which does not provoke nystagmus by itself, is applied. 3. Central nystagmus is markedly facillitated by simultaneous aprication of the optokinetic and labyrinthine stimulations. 4. The nystagmogenic area relates closely to the neural pathway of the optokinetic nystagmus. and plays an important role in the optic-vestibular coordination in development of nystagmus.