The author reported morphological study of arteries from basal brain to inner ear of 20 Japanese. Results are as follows: 1) Basilar arteries were found to be very variable.A.cerebelli inferior anterior and posterior were especially observed, since they have important relation with internal auditory artery.Anastomosis was also observed between the two inferior cerebellar arteries. 2) In 34 out of 40 internal auditory arteries, A.cerebelli inferior anterior gave rise to A.labyrinths.Other A.labyrinthi originated in A.cerebelli inferior posterior or A.cerebelli accessoria. 3) Only 25% out of 40 temporal bones showed typical arterial system of internal auditory meatus, described by Siebenmann, etc.Many types of individual variations were observed.The author showed pictures of reconstruction of internal auditory meatus by method of temporal bone serial section. 4) Outside diameter(inside diameter) of A. labyrinthi was 155(76) micron in average.The maximum 245(140) micron, though the minimum 100(68) micron.The average outside diameters (inside diameters) of A.cochleae propria, A.vestibulo-cochlearis and A.vestibuli anterior were 84 (42), 101(47) and 82(37) micron respectively. 5) Variations were not always found in both sides.They happened to appear at random.Even if a kind of variation was seen in basilar arteries of a case, it is not always expected that the arteries of internal auditory meatus of that case had a variating pattern. Only 4 out of 20 cases had regular pattern of arteries from basal brain to inner ear.Other 16 cases had a certain variating pattern in arterial system from basal brain to inner ear.The author concluded that inner ear disease of vascular origin is expected to be influenced on by the individual variations of arteries from basal brain to inner ear.
Phagocytosis of the epithelium of the mastoid cells was found in the human and pig by T.Goto and his co-worker. In the present paper phagocytosis of the mastoiod cells was experimentally studies, using the mastoid cells of young pig, because the mastoid cells of pig are well developed and resembled the human mastoid cells.The mastoid was removed surgically and disected into several pieces, which were soaked in 37-C Ringers solution.After 3, 12, 24, and 48 hours the mastoid blocks were taken out and histoiogically studied. In the specimens of 3 hours very few phagocy. tozed cells were seen in the epithelium, in that of 12 hours in most significant changes in the epithe. lium of mastoid cells were seen. After 24 hours detach ment from the subepithelial connective tissue, was seen and this epithelial layer contained many phagocytozed cells transformed into flat large round cells with irregular arrangement. These cells were suspected of migratirg later intoactive roundcells into the mastoid cell lumens.
1) Getting the hint from the fact that childrens like to play with telephones as toys, the authors put into experiment the talk-back style, new audiometric instrument by application of toy-telephone. 2) This instrument is the very small and children can be examined in their hearing by pure tone, speech sound, social sound and the voice of their mothers. 3) It was revealed that there are not significant.differences between the results by speech audiometry with standard audiometer and the results by this telephone audiometry. 4) In the application to the case of hard of hearing, we acknowledged the answer to mothers calling, by observing the expressions, reflexes and behaviours of the childrens, as the sign of auditory existence.There was no significant differences between the results of telephone audiometry and the results of other audiometry for the preschool childrens.
The posttympanoplastic hearing acuity of 200 patients treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagasaki University School of Medicine was evaluated after the following criteria. Success ......if the average postoperative hearing loss is within 30db, or decrease of more than 11 db, in comparison with preoperative hearing loss. Failure ......if the average postoperative hearing loss increased more than 11db. According to these criteria, the success rate has improved with the years;33.3per cent in 1955_??_1956, 25.0per cent in 1957_??_1958, 50per cent in 1959_??_1960, and 41.0per cent in 1961_??_1962.Contrariwise the rate of failure decreased step by step;21.6per cent, 19.6per cent, 13.0per cent and 10.3per cent, respectively. Therefore, it is obvious that the technic of tympanoplasty is improving constantly as far as hearing acuity is concerned. The results of four groups classified by preoperative hearing loss are as follows: Preoperative hearing loss Success Failure Less than 30db 64.1%28.20% 31 to 50db 27.0%16.0% 51 to 70db 40.8%10.2% 71 to 90db 16.7%8.3% The success rate of the patients with conductive deafness was 41.5per cent, which was much higher that of the mixed deafness(22.9per cent).As the preoperative air-bone gap became greater, the rate of unsuccessful cases of tympanoplasty decreased gradually from 29.4per cent to zero.
A case of neurinoma of the larynx in a 51 ydarsold woman was reported.The patient complained of hoarseness of a year's duration and a tempgral dyspnoe as a recent event. Endoscopic probe excision of tumor revealed neurinoma. Submucous resection of entire tumor was done under general anesthesia by way of external neck excision of a so called laryngotomia superior sinistra. The tumor measured 2.0×4.0×1.5 cm in size and weighed 10.8gr. Histopathological examination confirmed the clinical diagnosis of neurinoma.Postoperative course had been smooth and 3 years after removal no recurrence was seen up until the present except for slight hoarseness. The authors have scrutinized the frequency of occurence of the tumor, as reported in literature, their symptoms, biopsy and histopathological findings, diagnosis and surgical operations.This is seventh case in japanese literature.
The authors reported the results of the field survey and family follow-up of acatalasemia and hypocatalasemia during the period from 1959 to 1962. Results obtained are as follows: 1.Among 8, 968 individuals taking the screening test for the purpose of discovering the acatalasemic gene carrier in various parts of Japan, 65 individuals proved to be hypocatalasemia. 2.On examination of the remaining seven members of two acatalasemic families, there were one case of acatalasemia and three of hypocatalasemia in addition to the formerly known cases. 3.In examining 27 members from four hypocatalasemic families picked up by above screening tests, ten hypocatalasemic individuals in addition to the known cases were found. Therefore, when the case above is added to the already-known cases, the total of acatalasemic individuals amounts to 66 by the end of 1962. Of the 66 acatalasemics, 55 were from 25 Japanese families, three from a Korean family residing in Japan and eight from two Swiss families.
The refractory periods of waking rabbit brain to auditory and electrical stimulation were examined by means of the superimposing technique and the summation method in the average response computer.The refractory periods were determined by the appearance of the unspecific evoked responses to second stimuli.This experiment was designed on the table of the orthogonal arrays of three factors(H3.27). Following results were obtained: 1) The individuality of rabbits and the strength of the first stimuli had no influence upon the refractory periods, while the second stimuli produced a significant powerful effect. 2) There were no mutual interaction between the three factors(the individuality of the rabbits, the strength of the first stimuli and that of the second stimuli). 3) The cross-modality interaction between the click and electric shock showed that the evoked response is essentially the same as the secondary discharge of animal in sleep or the V-potential in waking human brain.
The author investigated clinically the correlation between thyroid function and Ménière's syndrome.The results are, on the whole, as follows: 1) As the results of thyroid function tests such as serum protein-bound-iodine(P.B.I.), radioactive iodine(I131) uptake of the thyroid gland(24 hour method), basal metabolic rate(B.M.R.), blood cholesterol, and the enlargement of the thyroid gland on 50 cases of Ménière's syndrome(Typical 25 cases and atypical 25 cases), the hypofunction of the thyroid gland was seen in 52% of typical cases and 44% of atypical cases. 2) The typical 25 cases of Ménière's syndrome have shown a tendency that many patients in the hypofunction group of the thyroid gland, had generally shown slender type, allergic constitution, hypotension, instability of autonomic nervous system, and anaemia;also, u tendency that many of them have shown CP at the time of caloric test or the slight tendency of reversibility of paroxysmal vertigo. 3) Between the group of hypothyroidism and normal group, no difference of thyroid function was found through the duration of sickness(the duration from the beginning of sickness to the time of clinical function test).In general, a tendency has been seen that the thyroid function had declined slightly in the period of parexysm rather than in the quiet period. 4) After giving proper doses of thyradin for 12 cases among the hypothyroid group of Menere's syndrome, the author recognized the effective rate of 66.6% for vertigo, 36.4% for tinnitas, 33.3% for hard of hearing, 66.7% for headache, or heavy feeling in the head, 62.5% for shoulder stiffness, and 71.4% for general languor respectively. 5) As a result of vestibular function test and hearing test on 10 cases of primary myxedema, which is the typical hypothyroid sickness, only slight disorder of vestibular function and hearing ability in half the number was seen.There was no case which could be diagnosed as the typical Ménière's syndrome. 6) According to the results of T.S.H.test carried out on 9 cases of the hypothyroid group of Ménière's syndrome, the author came to the conclusion that the lowering of the thyroid function might be secondary caused mainly by factor of hypophysis. The abovementiond results show that the thyroid function is always closely related with the complicated clinical picture of this syndrome as a general, background factor.In order to understand various clinical pictures of Ménière's syndrome, the author asserts that it might furnish much information in investigations of functions of various endocrine glands including the thyroid function. It seems clinically significant that the medical treatment of this syndrome, which hitherto has been apt to be focalised only to the local symptomatic therapy, should be done from the general point of view.