The characteristics of the per- and post-rotatory nystagmus were examined in 140 normal cases. The nystagmus frequency histograms in each 5 seconds were adopted as the observation parameter. The subject were rotated with the constant velocity of 60°/sec2 for 60 seconds Three Kinds of the angular acceleration were used to get the constant velocity, that is, 4°, 3° and 2°/sec2 respectively. The relationship between the nystagmus frequencies and the angular accelerations was examined. Any difference could not be observed among the three kinds of the angular acceleration. The maximum frequency of the post-rotatory nystagmus was higher than that of the perrotatory one. Thus, it was considered that the interruption was more stimulative to the labyrinth than the angular acceleration. This test seems to be possible to reveal vestibular recruitment phenomena, if exist, when it is applied to pathological cases. The relationship between the angular acceleration velocity and the distributions of the nystagmus of the nystagmus frequencies was examined, using the angular acceleration of 2°/sect. And the following conclusions were obtained: 1) The nystagmus frequencies became maximum after cease of acceleration up to the angular velocity of 10° to 30°/sec. 2) However, during 40° to 50°/sec, the frequencies became maximum just when the angular stimulations were finished. 3) On the other hand, the maximum frequencies of the nystagmus preceded the termination of the stimulation during 60° to 90°/sec. After that the nystagmus frequencies were almost constant during accelated stimulations. It means that the vestibular reactions were saturated. And as soon as the acceleration was ceased, the nystagmus frequencies were decreased. The maximum frequencies of the post-rotatory nystagmus were increased in almost parallel with increased in almost parallel with the terminal angular velocity. However, the frequencies were decreased after the maximum frequency was obtained. The following merits of this test were certified with repeated rotatory stimulations, that the distributions of the nystagmus frequency had constancy, and that there was little trend of the response decline.
As the precipitating antibodies in rabbits to house dust were considered to correspond to the blocking antibodies produced by hyposensitization treatment, rabbit anti-house dust antibody was used to investigate the antigenicity of house dust producing blocking antibody in human. The summary of the obtained results were as follows: 1) By the use of rabbit anti-house dust serum it was found that house dust extract contained at least three antigenic elements and the specific activity of the antibodies to house dust was displayed by the 7S gammaglobulin and not by the 19S macroglobulin fraction in radioimmunodiffusion test. 2) Fractionation of the house dust extract by gel diffusion and radioimmunoelectrophoresis disclosed that the protein fraction contained two antigenic components. Furthermore, one of these components was deprived of its antigenecity by the action of pronase but no antigenicity was demonstrated in polysaccharide fraction. On the other hand, Morris and his co-workers were unable to detect significant loss in skin reactivity to purified house dust fraction submitted to treatment with pronase. 3) Using mite extract and candida extract, cross reactions to anti-house dust serum were investigated with gel diffusion, but reactions were negative for both while Miyamoto et al. reported a close correlation between extract of house dust and considered mites as the main allergen in house dust. 4) From these results, the allergenicity of house dust in skin test and the antigenicity of house dust to blocking antibodies in man might be dissociated in some instances.
Experimental and clinical studies of cryosurgery were conducted for the determination of cryo effects in the otolaryngological field. Several basic problems regarding the action of the freezing in causing tissue necrosis were investigated histologically and physiologically using Torisha cryobar. The mechanisms of cell death caused by cryosurgery are through dehydration and concentration of electrolytes resulting from removal of water, denaturation of protein molecules, rupture of the cell membrane, thermal shock and vascular stasis. Studies show that the mass of tissue affected depends upon the temperature. Cryonecrosis of tissue obtained when the temperature below -17 to -20°°C in the tissue. An area of reversibility will surround the destroyed tissue if the temperature of the tissue appears to be over -17 to -20°C. Clinical cases demonstrated were papilloma, tongue cancer, habitual tonsillitis, Meniere diseases and hemangioma of the tongue. Results were as follows: (1) Cryosurgery has proved a safe surgical technique. (2) The proper application of cryoprobe is readily learned and easily applied. (3) The treatment takes much less time and patients do not need to stay in the hospital when the unilateral cryotonsillectong is performed. (4) Lack of pain and bleeding are some of the advantages of cryosurgery. (5) Cryosurgery is most useful for senile patients and also for diseases located locally in the otolaryngological field such as demonstrated in the cases above (6) The modality of the tumors should be observed by pysicians treating malignant diseases by cryosurgery.
This paper gives the results of LDH activity of various tissue in the inner ear of a guinea pig, the organ of Corti organ, stria vascularis and perilyirphatic fluid under acoustic overstimulation. 47 normal guinea pigs, with good preyer reflex, were used for these experiments. These guinea pigs were exposed to white noise of 115 dB for various duration of time from 10 minutes to 72 hours. After acoustic stimulation, inner ears of animals were exposed by operation and perfused with LDH incubation. After animals were decapitated, the inner ear were fixed with Karnovsky's solution and embedded with paraplast. With the LDH staining method, aboundant deposits of reduced tetrazolium dyes were shown to be in the organ of Corti and stria vascularis. After exposure to noise for 60 minutes, almost all the formosan disappeared in both the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. However, after exposure to noise for 15 hours, LDH activity increased in these areas again. As the next step of the experiment, the LDH activity in the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis were biochemically measured by socalled microbiochemieal technique. After decapitation of guinea pigs, their inner ears were put into 4°C physical NaCl solution. Using the surface preparation method, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis of each turn were separately obtained and homegenated in minute glass tubes. After centrifusion, quantitative measurement of LDH activity and protein content was performed on the supernatant fluid. In normal guinea pigs, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis showed almost the same level of LDH activity. The stria vascularis in the second turn showed the highest LDH activity, then first turn, third and the lowest activity in the fourth turn. After exposure to the noise for 60 minutes, the LDH activity of the stria vascularis decreased markedly in all turns and indicated the lowest level through the run. After exposure to noise for 15 hours, however, its activity increased to the highest level. After 72 hours, the LDH activity decreased again and returned to the normal level. The behaviour of LDH activity in the organ of Corti after acoustic overstimulation seemed to the same as it in stria vascularis. In perilymph, the LDH activity showed its highest level ( 5 times higher than normal level) on 15 hours exposure to the noise and then decreased gradually to the normal level.
Nasal and paranasal papillomas are rare benign tumors and are known with frequent local recurrence and occasional malignant change. The pathogenesis of these papillomas is not known, but recently a viral etiology has been proposed. Only a few ultrastructural observations of these papillomas have been reported by Gaito, R.A. et al. (1965), Jahnke V. (1971) etc. We studied papilloma in two patients ultrastructurally. Both patients were complaining of bilateral nasal obstruction, and a 68-year-old male had undergone removal of nasal papilloma twenty years ago and a 64-year-old male had nasal polypotomy three times in the past. Both were operated by Denker's method, and the specimens were taken at the time of biopsy and operation. Light microscopic findings were compatible of inverted papilloma. Specimens were immediately fixed in ice-cold buffered glutaraldehyde (Karnovsky) solution and post-fixed in 2 % osmium tetroxide solution buffered with cacodylate, then dehydrated in alcohol and embedded in Epon 812. Sections were cut and stained with toluidine blue for light microscopy. Ultrathin sections for electron microscopy were cut on a Porter-Blum Ultrotome. These were stained with uranyl acetate and lead acetate. Hitachi HU 12 type microscope (100 kV), and HU 11 B (75 kV) were used for examination. Electron microscopic findings were as follows: Case 1 : Superficial layer of flat cells and in some regions ciliated columnar cells were observed. Junctions between adjacent epithelial cells were consisted of cytoplasmic processes with desmosomes. Intermediated cells were polygonal in shape and had large nuclei and two or three nucleoli. The deeper layer of these cells were elongated and showed many mitosis and rested on discontinuous or obscure basement membrane. Peg like cytoplasmic process protruded into stroma. The intercellular space was gradually dilated in deeper layer. The cytoplasms of these tumor cells contained mitochondria, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and abundant tonofilaments and a dense body in some regions. We could not demonstrate intranuclear virus like particles. Case 2 : Superficial layer was covered with flat cells, and intermediated cells had no atypia, mitosis, virus like particles, and the basement membrane was intact. It was thought that peg like process of basal cells indicated easy recurrence of this tumor, and slight atypia, mitosis and discontinuous basement membrane suggested precancerous condition. So we emphasized the utility of electron microscopical observation for differentiating nasal and paranasal papillomas either precancerous or not.