The bone-conducted vowels were picked up by the vibration transducer of the accelerationtype applying to three anatomical sites on the heads (forehead, upper jaw and mastoid region)of the healthy adults. A comparative studies on the speech signals from these three regions of the head were done acoustically. The results were summarized as follows; i) for the pickup of speech signals from the body surface, the vibration transducer of small acceleration type (Rion Co. PV-06)was the most satisfactory in point of a signal-to-noise ratio, intelligibility of the speech and practical use. 2) the relative intensities of the speech signals were decreased in regular order i, u, e, o and a. 3) the spectral characteristics of these vowels were highly similar to those which were recorded from the micropone at the position in the distance of 30 cm from the lips, although there was an inclination of the increased low-frequency components with the decrease of high-frequency in the spectrum. 4) from the results of the articulation score, intelligibility of the vowels was much better in recorded sounds from the upper jaw and forehead compared with that from the mastoid region.
Several methods have been devised to find a realistic method for evaluating the airflow resistance in the human nose for a better understanding of nasal physiology. However, each of these methods has limitations and none proved to be an ideal one. Therefore, a standard measurement technique and a standard expression for nasal resistance have not been agreed with and a comparison among the findings of various investigations is difficult. The new method adopted in this paper has the advantages of simplicity, range of applicability, accuracy and sensitivity. The resistance in the nasal airway or in the portion below the pharynx was calculated from three separate measurements of total respiratory resistance by the forced oscillation technique. The three measurements of total respiratory resistance were obtained when the subject was breathing: A) through both nostrils, B) through the left nostril, C) through the right nostril. Evaluation of the upper and lower airflow resistance has been analyzed from the three measurements of A, B, and C according to the equation described by Lacourt and Polger. With this method, it is possible to determine numerical values for the resistance in different parts of the respiratory system such as each nostril or the portion below the pharynx, without opening the mouth or measuring pressure gradients within subdivisions of the airways, or using an artificial airway. The technique is simple for both the subjects and the tester.
Narrow-leaved cattails (n-1 cattails), Typha angustifolia L., are generally distributed in Japan. Although the positive rate of skin test with n-1 cattail extract had been reported relatively high, n-1 cattail pollinosis had not yet been confirmed in Japan. The two cases presented here from Mito district in Ibaraki prefecture mainly complained of sneezing attack, nasal stuffiness and watery nasal discharge at the time of n-l cattail pollination, from July to August. They gave positive intradermal and nasal provocative reactions with n-1 cattail pollen extract. In their sera anti-n-l-cattail IgE antibodies were detected.Another allergens were not detected as the cause of their nasal allergy. Their symptoms were controlled largely through perennial n-1 cattail pollen hyposensitization. In Mito district, n-1 cattails grew thick and pollination was evidenced by pollen survey and positive rate of skin test n-1 cattail pollen extract was significantly higher than that of another district in Japan. It, therefore, was thought that many indviduals in this district had been sensitized with n-1 cattail pollens. Analyzing the distribution of the grade of skin reaction, the specificity of n-1 cattail allergen extract was comfirmed. From the correlation of skin tests between cattail and other several allergens, it was concluded that there was no cross antigenicity between n-1 cattail extract and others except another species in “Typha L.”
The repair pattern of the reticular lamina of the organ of Corti was studied in the cochleae of human ears. The inner ears were obtained at autopsy from the individuals who had no evidence of auditory or vestibular disorders or therapy with ototoxic drugs. 1) After a loss of outer or inner hair cells, the framework of the reticular lamina was distorted, but no gaps were detected. The supporting cells were hypertrophied, but no reparative proliferation of the supporting cells were found in the organ of Corti. 2) Defects due to the collapse of outer hair cells of the first row were replaced mainly by the hypertrophied heads of the outer pillar cells. 3) Defects due to the collapse of outer hair cells of the second, third, and fourth row were replaced mainly by the hypertrophied phalanges of Deiters' cells of the first, second and third row respectively. 4) The space due to inner hair cell loss was filled wish the nearest inner supporting cells which were hypertrophied and extended toward the space. 5) The distortion of the reticular lamina and the degeneration due to aging were regarded as two possible causes for the total loss of the organ of Corti near the basal portion of the first turn.
Infrahyoid myotomy is defined as a surgery in which the sternohyoid, omohyoid and sternothyroid muscles are sectioned bilaterally at their insertions to the hyoid bone or to the thyroid cartilage. The purpose of the operation is to elevate the hyoid bone and the larynx with ease during deglutition and articulation. Animal experiments revealed that the degree of elevation of the hyoid bone and the larynx during deglutition was increased after the section the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles. Infrahyoid myotomy in three clinical cases resulted in improvement in swallowing and speech to some extent.
The patients with sensorineural hearing loss depend greatly on the use of hearing aid for communication, because no effective treatment of perceptive deafness has been established. They usually expect much advantages by using the instruments. Therefore otologists and audiologists should request for makers to improve the hearing aid and select a suitable hearing aid for each patient. It is also necessary to do auditory training and guidance including the better use and limitations of the hearing aids. This study was performed in order to inquire the effects and the limits of hearing aid using the Master Auditory Trainer. The power and response of the modurated sound with this trainer was variable voluntarily. The hearing abilities of patients were measured by different test of speech using this trainer. The receptive articulation score of the hearing impared were increaced when they could recognize the sounds of 70-80 dB (audiometer level) filtered at 1000-2000 Hz. However, voice sounds amplified to 90 dB or more (audiometer level) did not improve significantly the score.These phenomenas related to the auditory sensation area of patients, especially to the uncomfortable hearing level. For example, in the narrow hearing area or the lower uncomfortable level, their articulation score were not improve with any amplifeid speech sound regardless their hearing loss or hearing curve. Though it is impossible to determine the frequency characteristics of the hearing aid from hearing curve in the audiogram, a favorable frequency caracteristics for the deaf can be presumed to by the average level of hearing loss. It is hoped that the prescription of the hearing aid be made. The above-mentioned facts should be taken into consideration in auditory training for the patient.
Studies were made on the relationship between the results of speech discrimination test at the level of daily conversation and of pure tone audiometry and the results of self-ratings of the hearing impaired. The subjects employed were 596 patients with the age ranged between 16 and 69 complaining of hearing troubles in daily conversation. The speech discrimination test was also conducted on 112 out of the above subjects under the conditions of employing the body-worn type hearing aids. 1. The scores obtained in the speech discrimination test were lowered as the threshold for pure tone increased. At the average hearing loss of 50 dB, the scores were sharply lowered. 2. The rate of the cases with poor vowel articulation was high among the patients with scores of syllable articulation less than 60 %. A large deviation was observed in the scores of sound articulation on the patients with the syllable articulation less than 50 %. 3. The degree of hearing handicaps in the cases with the average hearing loss of 50 dB was considered close to that with 60 dB loss rather than that with 40 dB loss. 4. In the speech discrimination test conducted on the patients with body-worn type hearing aids whose average hearing loss was more than 50 dB, delivering test words with 60 phons almost the same results were obtained between the patients with 50 dB of average hearing loss and with 60 dB.