Part1.ExperimtsonHelicotrema. The author tried to observe histologically how the tissues of the internal ear are affected by injuring the helicotrema of guinea-pigs and thus causing impediment in the pathway of the labyrinthine fluid. The results were as fellows: 1.By opening or closing the helocotrema and disturbing the circulation of the labyrinthine fluid, obvious morphological changes were induced in the cochlear and the vestibular parts. 2.As the changes in the endo-and peri-lymphatic spaces, narrowing of the enaolymphatic space was observedin the animals with the helicotrema cut open and dilatation of it in those with closed helicotrema. 3.It seems probable that a barrier membrane is to be found in the cochlear aquaeduct, and that the latter, beside its function as a pathway to perlymph, acts as a defenderagainst invasion of foreign matters by its reticular formation. 4.No perceptible change was observed in the stria vascularis or the spiral ligament. 5.The sensory cells, after lapse of time in the experiment, showed slight degenerative changes- 6.No change was noted in the endolymphatic sac. From the above findings, it was found undeniable that a part of the perilymph originates in the wall of the membranous labyrinth, though mainly it comes through the cochlear aquaeduct from the cerebrospinal'fluid, while the endolymph, though mainly derived from blood vessels, is partially derived also from the membranous part of the vestibule.
Part 2.Experiment on Endolymphatic Sac. The author examined changes produced in the cochlear and vestibular parts following injury to the endolymphatic sac of guinea-pigs. The results were as follows: 1.By injuring the wall of the endolymphatic sac, and especially by closing the sac, a stasis of the endolymph or a rise of the endolymphatic pressure was induced.Accordingly, it was understood that the wall of the endolymphatic sac and its surrounding tissues play an important role in the mechanism of absorption of the endolymph. 2.Even if the endolymphatic sac was totally destroyed, as long as the efflux of endolymph was not disturbed no perceptible change was produced in the cochlear and the vestibular parts of the labyrinih.This is presumably due to endolymphatic ducts regulating the lymph pressure.
L.We surveyed Minimal Identificial Odor (M.I.O.) and made olfactogram on 37 cases with nasal disorders. In cases with no nasal disorders the olfactograms showed strait-horizontal lines, but in the abnormal cases they showed different lines which were divided into four types.According to the studies the significant relations were discovered between the olfactograms and intranasal constructures. 2.M I.O.and olfactogram were in proportion to the grade of nasal signes, nasal disorders and objective olfactory sense. 3.Statistic reviews with regard to intranasal constructures, nasal signes and nasal disorders were performed on twenty one cases with so-called anosmy which could not be surveyed by means of olfactometer. 4.M.I.O.was surveyed on 3 cases of chronic sinusitis and on 3 cases of tonsillitis pre-and postoperatively, and this method was proved to be beneficial to observe the effectiveness of the operations on the olfactory sense.
Studies were made of the results of audiometry, the state of recovery of hearing impairment, and the relationship between personal character and hearing impairment of female workers in a cotton spinning mill, and the following results were obtained. 1.Practically no hearing impairment was demonstrable in the spinning department up to the end of one year after employment, but after this period the impairment began to appear.The characteristics of the audiograms obtained were found to have tendencies for a diphasic fall to occur with peaks at 250, 500 and 5000 cps. 2.In those engaged in the weaving department the impairment of hearing in the high tone range began to appear after one month.This was followed by a transitory recovery at 5_??_6 months, but from about the 9th month permanent impairment began to appear which was chara-cterized mainly by falls in air and bone conduction hearing in the high tone range.With the passage of time the grade of impairment became increased, and after about5 to 10 years there appears a dip-type lowering at between 2, 000 to 10, 000 cps with maximum of 27.5db (at 5.000cps). 3.In both spinning and weaving departments workers with average hearing loss in the speech frequency range of more than 30 db, namely with difficulty in ordinary conversation were not encountered in this investigation. 4.The grades of hearing recovery brought about by taking leave (average 12_??_13 days) were examined on workers in the weaving department who were divided into two groups one of which was under 5 year employment, the other 5_??_10 year employment.Cases with hearing impairment of more than 10 db ( 500cp s + 1, 000cps +2, 000cps +5, 000cps/4)were found in 55% of the former group and 62% of the latter before leave, but on returning to work at the end of the leave the figures were 3% for the former and 19% for the latter, indicating the poorer recovery in those engaged for longer periods. 5.The relationship between personal character and incidence of hearing impairment was examined in the second place.It was found that epileptic character was seen in 43%, hysterical character in 41%, schizoid character in 35%, nervousness in 32%, and cyclical character in 32 o, indicating the tendency for hearing impairment to occur in the epileptical and hysterical types.
1.Low pitched noises consisted of sounds generated in blowing process (86_??_82phons), carding process (87_??_85phons), drawing-roving process (94_??_90phons), and spooling process (95_??_90phons). 2.Medium pitched noises consisted of sounds generated in spinning process (94_??_91phons), winding-doubling-twisting process (92_??_90phons), sizing process (84_??_80phons), drawing-in process (72_??_69phons), and finishing process (85_??_74phons). 3. High pitched noise consisted of sounds generated in weaving process (98_??_97phons). 4. Practically all noises in a spinning mill were of environmental origin with continuous and steady natures.
In the oder to treat chronic sinusitis, it is necessary to obtain high concentrations of antibiotics in the mncous membranes of the sinuses.The anthor has studied the conditions having influence ron transmission of antibiotics from serum to the mucosa.Among these conditions the first study was performed on pneumatization of the sinns.The investigation was made on 161 cases of chronic sinusitis in which penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline were separetely adminis tered.The antibiotics was injected one hour before operation.After the operation, the content of the antibiotics in the extirpated maxillary and ethmoid sinus mucosa was estimated by the vertical diffusion method. As the result, the author found that in well-developed sinuses antibiotics were transmitted from the serum into the mucosa in high concentration, and in the cases of under-developed sinuses they were in low concentration.Among the antibiotics used in this study, penicillin showed the highest concentration in mucous membrane relatively for the injected dose, while -streptomycin showed the lowest. In addition, the relationship between the type of histologic changes of the mucosa and the .concentration of antibiotics in the mucosa in sinusitis was investigated.As the results, no stati- stically significnnt differences in each types could be found with regard to the transmission of the antibiotic mission into the mucosa. However, the date suggests that the concentration of the administened antibiotics in the mucosais higher in catarrhal and purulent type than in fibrotic type.
The present study was undertaken to examine the latent labyrinthine reflex and sensation to the linear acceleration in the human body and following results were obtained.1)A close relationship was recognized between the latent progressive reflex observed by electromyography in the human body, and the results obtained by the usual vestibular examination. 2) In the reflex to the linear acceleration, the frequency of its appearance was varied by altering the head position in the movement of the ups and downs on the frontal axis, but it was hardly varied by altering the head position right and left on the sgittal axis. 3) As a result of the experiment in the human body, the sensitivity of the linear kinetic sensation in the vertical direction was found to be varied by lineal acceleration closed to the threshold of kinetic sensation, when the head posititon was altered on the frontal axis. 4) The results of these experiments indicated that the saccles otlith mainly acted for receiving the movement to the right and the left, while utricles otolith served to receive that to the upward and the downward, but both otoliths seemed to act mutually with duplicate or subsidiary function. 5) The observation of the linear kinetic reflex might be applied in the clinical field of medicine as one of the test of vestibular function of human bodies. 6) In the experiment on rabbit, the labyrinthine muscle reflex to the linear acceleration was mainly observed to appeare in the flexor muscles of the extremities contralaterally. 7) The appearance of this reflex did not always require interposition of the cervical muscles.
Musculor responses to positive and negative galvanic stimulation (4V.150-300, uA) of the labyrinth are studied in rabbits electromyographically and clinically, and the results obtained are as follows1.The labyrinthine muscular responses are mainly observed on the deep nape muscles (M.rectus capitis posterior major et minor, and M.obliquus capitis superior), the deep back muscles(Mm.sacrospinales) and the flexor muscle of the forelegs (M.articuloulnaris) in the contralateral side of the stimulated labyrinth, and on the extensor muscles (Mm.anconaei) in the ipsilateral side. 2.Negative galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth facilitates its functions, while positive galvanic stimulation inhibits them. 3.The same results were obtained in the decerebrated, resected of cervical nerves (C1-C4), or one-side-labyrinthectomized rabbits as in the normal. 4.In the superficial nape muscules (M.trapezius and M.splenius) the labyrinthine muscular tonus and the reaction to galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth are hardly found.According to the, results obtained by repeated galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth, the superficial nape muscles act as an antagonist of the deep nape muscles of the contralateral side. 5.The labyrinthine eye- and head-deviation are clinically observed and compared with the electromyographical studies, when the labyrinth is stimulated by galvanic stimulation kn-abstract=
In order to obtain more exact results in speech test, the list of the words has to be reasonable from the stand point of confusion test among the speech words.However, confusion patterns among the speech words have not been derived upto date. Moreover, articulation scores for respective speech words could be obtained from the confusion matrix.Thus, the author could find a reasonable word lists for speech test. If the speech words are classified in the two groops, i.e.the direct sound and the contracted sound groop, the same confusion pattern can be found in the two groops.Therefore, the words list for speech test can be reasonably arrenged with only monosyllable sounds belonging to the direct sounds groop. The six words that is ni, de, be, pe, da and do must be omitted from the werds list because these words are very frequently confused with other words even in normal persons.The list contains 60 words. The total articulation score of this list for normal persons is calculated as 98% from canfusion matrix previonsaly obtained for direct sound groop. The list has been proved as more suitable in differentiation of nerve deafunss than any other lists in clinical use.
1) Studies on Dihydrostreptomycin influence upon brain tissue and central pathway of the cochlear nerve were made by measuring oxygen consumption by the Warburg's apparatus. 2) The in vitroexperiment in the case of high.concentration of Dihydrostreptomycin showed the repression of oxygen consumption in both homogenate and slice of whole brain. 3) This phenomen was especially remarkable in the lower terminal nucleus. 4) In the experiment in vivo, oxygen consumption decreased remarkably. 5) The succinate metabolism was remarkably repressed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. 6) The CO2 production increased and R.Q.became smaller. 7) The significance of the treatment with vitamin B1, pantothenate, ATP prepartion and BAL was studied.
An experiment was performed on the effects of drugs on the labyrinthine muscular response in the bilateral deep nape muscles (M.rectus capitis posterior major et minor) of rabbit. These drugs such as antihistamin (i.e.of aminoether, phenothiazine), local anesthetica (i.e. cocaine, alcohol), sympathomimetic drugs (i.e.adrenalin, atropine.and pilocarpine), and interneuro. anal blocking agent (i.e.meprobamete), were infused into the tympanic cavity of normal and decerebrated rabbits, and anodal and cathodal galvanic stimulation was given to the animals upon the labyrinth (Nippon Koden MSE 2 Type stimulator), I measured voltage and amperage of the cathodal galvanic stimulation, when labyrinthine muscular response occured in the contralateral deep nape muscles for the purpose of determining the threshold of the stimulation. The obtained results are as follows: 1.Both decerebrated and non-decerebrated rabbits showed labyrinthine muscule response even after drug-infusion as well as before. 2.In the non-decerebrated rabbits, the threshold in the labyrinthine muscular reaction decr-eased after the infusion of pilocarpine or alcohol (in exciting stadium of alcohol). 3.In the non-cerebrated rabbits the threshold increased after the infusion of restamia, cocaine, alcohol (in anesthetic stadium), adrenalin, contomin, and atropine.But it did not change after infusion of meprobamate. 4.The decerebrated rabbits showed pronounced reactions than the normal after drug infusion, and the threshold in the decerebrated was lower than in the non-decerebrated.
The purpose of this study is to find correlations between the degree of pathologic change or impedance change of the conductive apparatus and hearing acuity of bone conduction. Three methods were adopted to estimate the degree of pathologic change or impedance change of the conductive apparatus;1.the pathologic change of the conductive apparatus was examined by surgical operation in some cases.2.Hearing acuity of air conduction was tested.3.Hearing acuity by an acoustic probe was tested.Air conduction loss shows the loss of transmission of air vibration to the inner ear, and the hearing acuity tested with the acoustic probe shows the transmission loss of vibration, that is, the impedance change in the conductive apparatus. Sixteen different frequencies from 250 c.p.s.to 6000 c.p.s.were used for the test of hearing acuity of bone conduction and the test of hearing acuity with the acoustic probe. The subjects of the study were 175 cases of conduction deafness including chronic otitis media with central perforation, chronic otitis media with marginal perforation, chronic serous otitis. media and otosclerosis. Following results were obtained.1.the pathologic change of the conductive apparatus was examined by surgical operation in some cases. 2.Hearing acuity of air conduction was tested. 3.Hearing acuity by an acoustic probe was tested.Air conduction loss shows the loss of transmission of air vibration to the inner ear, and the hearing acuity tested with the acoustic probe shows the transmission loss of vibration, that is, the impedance change in the conductive apparatus.Sixteen different frequencies from 250 c.p.s.to 6000 c.p.s.were used for the test of hearing acuity of bone conduction and the test of hearing acuity with the acoustic probe.The subjects of the study were 175 cases of conduction deafness including chronic otitis media with central perforation, chronic otitis media with marginal perforation, chronic serous otitis.media and otosclerosis.Following results were obtained.1.Two fundamental forms of hearing curve of bone conduction were obtained;the first form was the form of horizontal curve, the second form was the form which showed decreased threshold in low frequency range (below about 1000c.p.s.) and increased threshold in high frequency range (above about 1000c.p.s.), and a remarkable notch was found in the frequency range between 1200 c.p.s.and 3000c.p.s.in many cases of the second form.2.Each type of middle ear diseases did not show its peculiar form of hearing curve of bone-conduction.For example, so called Carhart's notch was found not only in otosclerosis but com-monly in other type of middle ear diseases, and the hearing curves of bone conduction of chronic otitis media with disrupted ossicular chain were not distinguished from that of chronic otitis.media with normally connected chain.3.In many cases which shows low tone loss curves of air conduction.hearing curves of bone conduction of the first form (horizontal curve) were found.On the contrary, in many cases which shows high tone loss curves of air conduction, the hearing curves of bone conduction of second form (decreased threshold in low frequency range and increased threshold in high frequency range) were found. 4.The case which showed low tone loss curve of hearing by the acoustic probe always.showed bone conduction curve of the first form.On the contrary, cases which posessed high tone loss curve of hearing by the acoustic probe usually showed bone conduction curve of the second form. 5.From the results above mentioned, it was concluded that when stiffness is added to the conductive apparatus the bone the conduction curve shows the first form, and when mass isadded to the conductive apparatus the bone conduction curve shows the second form.
Uranin solution (10%) was injected in four cases of otogenic suppurative meningitis, and two or three hours after the injection, content of uranin in the spinal liquid was measured by fluors- cope comparing the fluid with the standard solution in the light of ultra-violet (3600A) ray. The results of the examination were analysed in codsideration with other clinical findings and conclusions were as follows. 1.In case of healthy man, content of uranin in the spinal liquid was less than 10r/dl three hours after the intramuscular injection of 10% uranin solution in doses of 0.3cc per 1 kilogram body weight. 2.In case of otogenic suppurative meningitis, content of uranin was 60∼100r/dl while the disease was progressive, and the contents decreased when the patient had the tendency to recover, and at last when the content showed 10∼20r/dl, it was observed that the patient recovered with- out giving further medication. Then it could be concluded that when the content arrived at the level of 10∼20r/dl, the infl- ammation of meninges diminished and it was not necessary to give any medicament. 3.The uranin content was paralleled with the grade of globulin reaction of the fluid, but no relation between uranin content and the spinal pressure or number of cells in the fluid was observed. 4.It could be concluded that the measurement of uranin in the spinal fluid was valuable to establish diagnosis and prognosis of suppurative meningitis.
Permeability of meningls to uranin is greatly increased in case of inflammation of meninges. Based on the above mentioned fact, uranin is used to establish diagnosis and prognosis of suppu-rative meningitis.In this experiment, it was planned to decide proper dose, method of injection of uranin and proper time to obtain spinal fluid after the injection.The experiment was carried out using rabbits, half of them being healthy and the other half experimentally infected by pneumococcus type I to iuduce meningitis. The conclusions were as follows:1.In case of healthy rabbits, the highest peak of the density of uranin in spinal fluid was observed one hour after injection. Uranin was given intramuscularly or intravenously, and in both cases the highest peak was observed one hour after the injection and the content of uranin was less than 10γ/dl. 2.In case of rabbits suffering from meningitis, the highest peak was also observed one hour after the injection and the average content was 71.6γ/dl by intramuscular injection and 81.6γ/dl by intravenous injection. According to the statistical analysis, the difference of the level of the content between healt-hy rabbits and sick rabbits was proved significant.Therefore the test is tnought to be a valuable method to diagnose suppurative meningitis. 3.The time to obtain the spinal fluid should be one hour after the injection, because the hig-hest content of uranin in the fluid was observed at this time, both by intramuscular and intrave-nous injection. 4.In case of sick rabbits, the difference between intramuscular injection and intravenous inje-ction was insignificant. Clinicnlly, in case of intravenous injection side-effects are observed frequently, and pit would be concluded that intramuscular injection is better than intravenous injection. 5.In case of sick rabbits, the difference between in doses of 0.03gram and of 0.06gram per K.G.M.waf insignificant. Consequently, the sufficient doses of uranin for the test are considered to be 0.03gm.per kgm.
One hundred cases of head injuries with brain damages were strdied using 51AlV audiometer and classified into 3 types. Auditory disturbance was shown in 76 cases, inner ear deafness being the highest in incidence. The inner ear deafness and bilateral damage were most common in those with the injuries to occipital region, the severity being parallel to that of the intra-cranial lesion. The descendent type was most frequently observed, however in cases with occipital injuries, the abrupt type was most predominant. No singinicant relation was observed between the disturbance of consiousness and auditory disturbance.Contre coup was in ona of the cases. The prognosis was unfavourable.
The authors reported a case of "fibroma durum", which grew on the hard palate.The patient was a 38-year-old male labourer, and he noticed a small node in the front part of the hard palate five years ago.Thetumor enlarged gradually but no subjective symptoms were complained. When the tumor was removed it was found to be a mass about the size of the tip of a thumb, and attached to the median line of the hard palate with a short peduncle. From the histological point of view, the tumor was a typical fibroma durum.Among the benign tumors which rise in the oral cavity, the tumor of the hard palate origin is uncommon. Especially fibroma is rare. Besides, a statistical observation was performed on 53 cases of oral tumors out of 58865 patients who had visited our clinic for the last 5 years.
The Influence on the hearing and the vestibular function of 37 pilot of a Jet plane T-33A before and after flying was studied and the following results have been obtained. The air conduction audiogram showed the loss of the hearing 32.1% of the pilots and the degree of the loss was 10db in 2/3 and from 15 to 20 db in approximately 1/3 of them, and the frequency and degree of disturbance were more significant in the higher tone range above 4, 000 cps, especially in 6, 000cps.The change in the bone conduction was observed in 38.3% of the pilots, but it was smaller in comparison with the air conduction.In the lowea tone range below 500cps, the hearing showed a slight increase and in above 1000cps a small degree of loss was obs erved.The number of flying experience did not indicate any difference in the incidence of the disturbance, but in all he pilots including those received no influence, the change in the hearing was minimal in the group having more number of years of flying experience in the lower freq- uencies below 1, 000cps and inversely their db loss was greater in above 2, 000cps. The vestibular function was examied before and after flying Romberg's sign was more mor- ked in 83.3% of these cases after flyiug and the inversion angle decreased by Goniometry in 73.0 % and the average value of postrotary Nystagmus showed 2.6 times increase after flying.The percentage and degree of disturbance was found less among those having longer years of flying experience, suggesting some adaptability to the stimuli.
The author investigated the masking of hearing for spoken voice by which noise in the persons with deafness, and the following subjects were studied:(1) Relation between the white noise level and speech reception threshold shift. (2) Studies on the effects of white noise on discrimination ability. (3) The meaning of speech noise audiometry differential diagnosis of different kinds ofdeafness.
Asapreliminarystudy, the authors tried to take various tomographs in frontal and sagittal sections, usinga humans kull, in order to illustrate details of the anatomical structures of the maxilla. Then the authors observed tomograms in the cases of nasal and paranasaldiseases;maligaant tumor of the upper jaw, nasal tumor, postoperative cyst of the maxilla and chronic sinusitis. As the result the authors concluded that the tomographic method was more useful in the diagnosis of diseases in this regionas compared with the other ordinary rentgenographies, espe-cially in making diagnosis of cancer of the upper jaw, in which the location and the extent of the tumor were readily and certainly identified by bone destruction on the film.