The present study was pushed to examine whether there are differences in the ability of lytic biological variants of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and if there are differences in the polypeptides of EBV particles from three different cell lines (NPC-KT, A2L/AH, and B95-8). Early antigen (EA) synthesis was confirmed by immunoprecipitation which showed that polypeptides synthesized in Raji cells superinfected with P3HR-1 and NPC-KT EBVs were indistinguishable by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. On the other hand, one of the most abundant polypeptides, 58 kilodalton polypeptide, of virus particles from epithelial cells (NPC-KT and A2L/AH) was not observed with virus from lymphoblastoid cells (B95-8). The data suggests that 58-kilodalton polypeptide in characteristic protein of EBV from epithelial cells.
This study was carried out to investigate the structure of sensory nerve endings and SP (Substance P) nerve fibers of the canine laryngeal mucosa by means of silver impregnation and immunohistochemical techniques (PAP methods) with light microscopy and to discuss their relationship to the physiological function of the larynx. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Free nerve endings, corpuscular endings and taste bud-like structures were observed. 2. Endings were composed of thin and thick nerve fibers. 3. SP was observed in nerve endings. 4. SP fibers were found to be related to the submucosal glands and blood vessels. 5. SP fibers may be associated with reflex, secretory and circulatory regulation of the larynx.
The phonatory organ in the chicken is the syrinx, which is located at the carina. Phonation is induced through the vibration of the lateral and medial syringeal membranes in the syrinx. There are very few reports on the ultrastructure of the chicken syrinx. The ultrastructure of the medial and lateral syringeal membranes was observed by scanning electron microscopy in the female chickens two or three months after hatching. The surface of the syringeal membrane consisted of squamous epithelium in the center and ciliated epithelium at the margins. The space between the center and the margin consisted of squamous epithelium and ciliated epithelium. The syringeal membrane consisted of three layers: the epithelium, superficial layer of the lamina propria, and deep layer of the lamina propria. The superficial layer of the lamina propria, revealed a network of collagenous and elastic fibers, with collagenous fibers forming a bundle in the deep layer. In the vibrating syringeal membrane, the deep layer, and the epithelium and superficial layer are considered to work a body and a cover, respectively.
Transfection experiments using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA obtained from NPC-KT cells were carried out to examine whether the Ad-AH human adenoid epithelial cells could be transfected. We found that the Ad-AH cells were transfectable using NPC-KT virus DNA, as determined by the synthesis of EBV specific antigens. Concentrates of supernatant fluids obtained from transfected Ad-AH cells were capable of transforming human cord blood lymphocytes. Similar virus concentrates were unable to superinfect Raji cells.
A review of 20 malignant parotid tumors experienced at Department of Otolaryngology, Hokkaido University Hospital during 10 year period of 1976 through 1985 was performed retrospectively. Thirty five percent of these cases was adenocarcinoma, while malignant mixed tumor 20 percent. Nine out of these 20 cases had their initial treatment at our clinic, whereas the other 11 had previous surgical treatment and /or radiation therapy. Seven died of distant metastasis either in the lung or in the brain. It seemed evident that facial nerve involvement was suggestive of their poor prognosis in view of the fact that facial nerve of these 7 patients had invariably affected at their first visit to our clinic.
Routinely formol-fixed and paraffine-embedded surgical spacimens of either the palatine tonsil or upper pharynx from 75 patients, which was replaced by the following respective foci: 24 squamous cell carcinoma, 20 non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas, 3 metastatic carcinomas, each one of 5 nonhematopoietic cell tumors, 19 chronic inflammatory changes, and 4 cases doubted in the first biopsies whether malignant lymphoma or undifferentiated carcinoma, were stained immunohistologically with anti-LCA and anti-EMA sera, respectively. All of the examined malignant lymphoma cells and non-neoplastic lymphoid cells were definetely immunoreactive for LCA, but not for EMA. On the other hand, the examined carcinoma cells and nonhematopoietic tumor cells were completely negative for LCA. Doubted 4 cases could be diagnosed as 3 malignant lymphomas and 1 undifferentiated carcinoma in the following biopsies. The former 3 cases were immunoreactive for LCA and lacked immunoreactivity for EMA. The latter was positive for EMA, but negative for LCA. In conclusion, the immunohistological stain for LCA was useful to the diagnostic discrimination between lymphatic and nonhematopoietic tumors, especially between non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in the upper and middle pharyngeal regions, although the grade of expression for LCA was heterogeneous in the same sections.
Reconstruction of the entire soft palate after removal of recurrent pleomorphic adenomas or carcinomas of minor salivary gland origin is extremely difficult and may result in velopharyngeal incompetence for speech and swallowing. Prosthetic management by an application of the speech-aid may fail to obtain a satisfactory result, since a water-tight fit and adequate retention of the prosthesis is difficult even by cooperative consultation with the prosthodontist. In order to solve this rehabilitation problem, we developed an operative method for immediate repair of the entire soft palate using a superiorly based myomucosal flap obtained from the posterior pharyngeal wall. We utilized this technique in 5 consecutive cases, and the patients had successful restoration of velopharyngeal function with normal speech, swallowing and nasal breathing.
When deciding the treatment of lingual thyroid, the fact that more than 70% of lingual thyroid cases have no orthotopic thyroid tissue should be kept in mind. That is to say, removal of lingual thyroid may cause hypothyroid function. In this brief paper, a case of lingual thyroid that was treated successfully by transposition is reported. The patient was a 6 year old female and complained of dysphagia that had increased recently. The ectopic thyroid feeding artery was not demonstrated preoperatively. One side of the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue was conserved as much as possible, and a pedicled flap was made. Lingual thyroid was included at the terminal segment of the flap, and transposed inferior to the right submandibular area. Postoperatively, thyroid function was retained and the mass of the base of the tongue disappeared. This technique is widely indicated for the conservative surgery of lingual thyroid.
Since the discovery of auditory brainstem response (ABR), considerable interests have been generated in the practical application of ABR for experimental and clinical studies on auditory systems. The present work was carried out to investigate the basis of rat ABR and the implication of noradrenergic(NA)systems on brain stem auditory transmission. The rat ABR, appearing within a latency of 10msec, is composed of 6 to 7 waves, the 2nd wave having clearly separated small two peaks (IIA and IIB). Electrical lesions of the dorsal cochlear nucleus resulted in the disappearance of the IIB peak, remaining the IIA intact. This result suggests that a specific part of the cochlear nucleus may be involved in the generations of each peak. Amphetamine as well as phenylephrine (NA-α1 agonist) shortened the latency of each wave, these changes being antagonized by prazosin, aNA-α1 antagonist. Amplitudes of the IIB peak and after decreased following injections of clonidine, a NA-α2 agonist. Similar changes were detected after electrical stimulations of the locus coeruleus. Yohimbine, a NA-α2 antagonist, obviously antagonized clonidine and also locus coeruleus stimulation effects. These results indicate that there are at least two NA systems influencing on the activities of acoustic transmission in the brain stem. One is a NA-α1 system which causes a diffused activation of the central nervous system and then causes the shortening of ABR latencies. The other is a NA-α2 system which is probably related to activities of efferent neurons from the locus coeruleus and serves as an inhibitory function on acoustic transmission.
The nucleus of optic tract (NOT) is considered as an essential premotor area for the generation of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in afoveate animals. In the primates, however, very little information on the optokinetic (OK) subcortical pathway, either anatomically or physiologically, is available. In order to clarify the role of the NOT in generation of OKN, the lateral pretectum including the NOT were destroyed by surgical knife or electrolytic device in nine monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis). In three monkeys whose NOTs were totally damaged, OKN were totally abolished against optokinetic (OK) stimulation toward the side of lesion, whereas OK stimulation toward the contralateral side generated the normal gain of OKN. This phenomenon was identical in both monocular and binocular stimulation. In two monkeys with partial NOT-lesions, OKN were produced against OK stimulation toward the side of lesion, but gain of OKN was less than 0.6. In four other monkeys whose NOTs were spared, OK stimulation in both directions generated the normal gain of OKN. Smooth pursuit and saccade were normal in all NOT-lesioned monkeys. Consequently, the present study suggests that the NOT in monkey will be the first relay station in the OKN same as in non-primates, and the functional pathways of OKN and other visually induced eye movements may be separate at the level of the NOT.
Sixty female adults with vocal cord nodules were examined and treated with voice therapy using phonolaryngograph. The results were as follows. 1. It was considered that vocal cord nodules were caused by vocal abuse following factors might also be the considered; the neck and shoulder stiffness, hard glottal attack, singing or speaking with innappropriate voice range. 2. For visual feedback training, a phonolaryngograph was used for simultaneously indicating the time courses of air flow rate, intensity and pitch of voice on the screen. This training method was simple and proved effective for voice therapy, 3. Laryngoscopic observations revealed that vocal cord nodules either disappeared or redused in size within 6 months of voice therapy in 70% of the cases. 4. Treatment of vocal cord inflammation appeared to give an additional effect the result of voice. 5. In according with improvement of vocal nodules, hoarseness improved. 6. On soundspectrographic analysis, an increase in higher harmonics and a decrease in noise components were generally observed. 7. In one of the present cases, a computer analysis revealed a decrease in the values of PPQ, APQ, and noise level. In the course of training of soft voice production, an increase in noise level with a decrease in richness of harmonics were observed.
Both optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and fixation-suppression of caloric nystagmus have been proposed as useful diagnostic tools for assessment of infratentorial lesions. However, despite all efforts to establish diagnostic values in the brainstem lesions over the years. Localizing values of deranged OKN and failure of fixation-suppression against a discrete lesion site have not been established yet. In this study, both slow phase OKN velocity and fixation-suppression of caloric nystagmus were investigated on 44 patients, who showed discrete unilateral lesions in the brainstem and in the cerebellar hemisphere. 1. Both OKN and fixation-suppression of caloric nystagmus were impaired toward the side of the lesions in all patients who had lesions in the midbrain. 2. OKN were limited toward the side of the lesions, whereas fixation-suppression were equivocal data between normal and abnormal in all patients who had the lesions in the ventral tegmentum of the pons. 3. Both OKN and fixation-suppression were impaired toward the contralateral side to the lesions in patients who had lesions in the dorsal tegmentum of the pons. 4. OKN were limited toward the side of the lesions, whereas fixation-suppression were lost toward the contralateral side to the lesions in all patients who had lesions either in the superior or the middle cerebellar peduncle. 5. In 4 of 8 patients with Wallenberg' s syndrome, both OKN and fixation-suppession were impaired toward the side of the lesions. In the other 4 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome, OKN were limited toward the contralateral side to the lesion, whereas fixation-suppression were impaired toward the lesion sides. 6. Both OKN and fixation-suppression were impaired bilaterally, in the patients who had cerebellar lesions. It seems that these findings are useful for the diagnosis of localization of the infratentorial lesions.