Laryngeal stenosis was created by partial resection of the thyroid cartilage in dogs. This condition was thought to be compatible with the laryngeal stenosis after acute traumatic injury in man. The laryngeal air space decreased its size to one-third of the normal dog. The thyroid cartilage twisted three months later, but difficulty in breathing was not observed in all dogs. When the defect was covered by perichondrium, cartilage formation observed postoperatively and when the perichondrium was not used, cartilage formation was not observed. The defects were repaired using auto- or homograft of thyroid or costal cartilage. All dogs were killed three months after the operation. Perichondrium had to be treated as carefully as possible, because it was useful postoperative cartilage formation. This postoperative cartilage or bone formation occured in the part of the transplantation made the newly created framework stronger. In all cases laryngeal air space was reconstructed satisfactorily.
Light- and electronmicroscopic studies of the tissues from middle ears diagnosed of tympano sclerosis, adhesive otitis media, post-inflammatory ossicular fixation and chronic otitis media, revealed almost similar findings of inflammatory response and healing. The findings were metaplasia of mucosal epithelium, fibrosis of submucosal connective tissue with hyalinization, calcification, and so on. A new diagnostic term of "tympanofibrosis" would be preferable to explain above-mentioned pathologic conditions.
In order to grasp the pathophysiologic situation of the inner ears of patients with Meniere's disease, compound action potential (AP), summating potential (SP) and cochlear microphonics (CM) were examined by transtympanic electrocochleography. Hearing impairments were divided by the pure tone audiogram into three types. Type I indicates fluctuating hearing impairment resulting in a recovery to normal range at some interval, type II indicates fluctuating hearing impairment without recovery to normal range and type III indicates.. fixed hearing loss with a flat audiogram. In type I, asuper normal AP amplitude, CM amplitudes at 0.5kHz and 4kHz and an increased negative SP were noted in most cases. The ratio of AP to negative SP was lower and the ratio of AP to positive SP was higher than the other types. The CM thresholds at 0.5kHz and 4kHz were well maintained in typeI. In type III both AP and CM amplitudes were lower than control being 1/2-1/5 of the latterand further the ratio of AP to negative SP was higher and the ratio of AP to positive SP showed was lower than the other types. The threshold at 0.5kHz was well maintained in type III. In type II and III, the AP latency was prolonged in all cases. In type II, AP, SP and CM responses were intermediate between type I and III. In view of the above findings, the author considers that the main etiological factor in type I is a reversible change in the endolymphatic space with a temporary physiological blockage of the sensory cells, in type III, a structural change of the endolymphatic space with endolymphatic hydrops with partial lesion of sensory cells, and in type II a mixture of type I and III.
Pathogens of 30 peritonsillar abscess cases were studied to identify both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Also, the method of selection of antibiotics in chemotherapy for these cases were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) Fourty-six strains were isolated from the 30 cases. Main organisms were Group A β-hemolitic streptococci (26%) as aerobes and, as anaerobes, Peptostreptococcus sp. (28%), Peptococcus sp. (15%), Fusobacterium sp. (9%) and Bacteroides sp. (2%) were identified. 2) Anaerobes were detected in 23 cases out of the 30(77%). 3) Group A β-hemolytic streptococci were detected in 12 cases out of 30(40%) and in 5 cases among the 12, anaerobes were detected simultaneously. In the remaining 18 cases, anaerobes were predominant. 4) The most effective chemotherapeutic agents were groups of penicillins or cephalosporins.
This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of delayed auditory feedback (DAF) on patients with unilateral hemispheric damage. The experimental subjects consisted of three groups of 15 persons: normal male subjects in their fifties, the patients with left sided hemispheric damage and these with the right sided respectively. Each subject was asked to read a list consisting of 50 Japanese syllables under NAF (normal auditory feedback) and DAF with a delay of 0.2 seconds. The experiment was conducted by presenting DAF to one ear during the task with white noise masking the other ear. Two indices of DAF effect were employed: number of articulatory errors and total speaking time. As a result, a significantly greater number of articulatory errors occurred when presenting DAF to the ipsilateral ear of hemispheric damage than to the contralateral. In the measurement of total speaking time, however, no significant differences between the ears were found.
Capillary permeabilities of fluorescein and trypan blue were studied in the skin of rabbits and in the mucosa of the cheek pocket of hamsters. It was revealed that fluorescein was more permeable and extinguishable than trypan blue. In addition, it was observed that the permeability of fluorescein in the carrageenin granuloma was similar to that in normal mucosa. However, fluorescein remained longer in the carrageenin granuloma than in normal mucosa. Fluorescein test was clinically performed on various laryngeal lesions. Five ml of 10% fluorescein was injected intravenously and the lesions were visualized both immediately after the injection and also one and half hours or three hours after the injection under microlaryngoscopy using ultraviolet light. It was observed that longer period was necessary for the disappearance of fluorescence in the cases of polypoid vocal cords and pedunculate edematous polyps than in normal cases. Usefulness of fluorescein test in performing microlaryngosurgery especially for polypoid vocal cords was emphasized because the complete dissection of the diseased lesion was performed by suctioning the pathological substances under mucosa of the vocal cords which was stained by fluorescein.
The clinical course of 280 patients with perennial nasal allergy was followed in a controlled study in which one half of the patients received "low zone hyposensitization (Kozaki)" while the other half received conventional hyposensitization. "Low zone hyposensitization" started with house dust extract diluted at ten thousandfold of the threshold to which patient reacted with slight redness in intracutaneus skin test. Treatment was begun with 0.02ml of the antigen extract. The dose was increased by 50per cent weekly until the patient's symptom were ameliorated. This maintenance dose was then given every two weeks." Low zone hyposensitization" group were assessed by improvement ranging 79±8per cent for sneezing, 71±8per cent for watery discharge, 58±9per cent for obstruction. The effect of "low zone hyposensitization" was equivalent to that of conventional hyposensitlzation(X2-test, P>0.25), though the relief of symptoms could be obtained earlier by "low zone hyposensitization" than conventional hyposensitization. No side-effects were observed with "low zone hyposensitization" Although the mechanism underlying the benefical effect of "low zone hypasensitization" are not yet completely understood, the authors support idiotype network theory suggesting that the reduction in symptom are due to slight decrease in the specific IgE antibody and to slight increase in the antiidiotypic antibody which is not able to react the antigen in the serum of patients. The authors claim that cell-bound antiidiotypic antibody competes chemically for the Fc receptors with the cell-bound specific IgE antibody, thereby reducing effective bridge with the antigen that can release chemical mediators for the mast cells and basophils.
The author devised a quantitative filter-paper disc method that measures thresholds of four basic tastes under each gustatory innervation. The method was satisfied with various conditions which were demaned as a method of taste examination clinically. 1) This study was performed in 58 normal students in u nursing school, aged 18 to 21. They were tested between 5:00 and 6:00p.m. 2) S-shaped accumulation degree curves were described in 3 tastes; sweet, salty and sour. They were similar to each other. On the other hand, the bitter taste accumulation degree curve was considerable variation in the thresholds. 3) The difference of sensitivities of tastes between each area of innervations were detected. Salty, sour and bitter tastes in glossopharyngeal area were more sensitive than those in the other areas, especially in tastes of sour and bitter were with most sensitivity on that area. 4) In the sweet taste many subjects were detected with most sensitivity on the soft palate. 5) In an electrical taste an anterior area of the tongue was more sensitive. This caused to be different reception site of four basic tastes. 6) Each normal value of four basic tastes was determined, and devided into five degrees of each taste concentration. They were manufactured as the standard test by the ampoule-set of 2ml.