he aim of the present study was to analyze human neuro-psycho-physiological processes in rapid repetition of a syllable /pa/. In Experiment 1, middle latency responses (MLR) and slow vertex responses (SVR) to auditory stimuli were recorded in 2 normal adults during rest and rapid repetition of /pa/ in response to the stimuli. In Experiment 2, reaction times (RT) of rapid repetition were measured in 10 normal young adults on three tasks; the first was to utter /pa/, /ta/ or /ka/ rapidly to a corresponding stimulus /pa/, /ta/ or /ka/ (RTA). The second was to utter only /pa/ from the condition of preparing for /pa/ production in response to only /pa/ stimulus of them (RTB). The third was to utter /pa/ from the same condition of the second task in response to only /pa/ stimulus (RTC). As the results in Experiment 1, the latency of P1 shifted form 75msec to 60msec, while there was no discernible change in MLR. In Experiment 2, the obtained RT were; 323.6msec (RTA), 295.5msec (RTB), and 240.9msec (RTC), respectively.The results suggest the following: 1) The auditory sensorineural process takes 60msec. This value seems to correspond to the latency of P1 in SVR. 2) The auditory discrimination takes 60msec. This value seems to correspond to the latency from P1 to N1. 3) Motor programming process takes 30msec. This value is larger than N1. 4) "Motor neuron time" is 80msec. 5) Latency from activation of the speech muscles to voice onset is 100msec. It is concluded that the RT paradigm would be useful for the study of language and speech disorders.
A bacteriological study on otorrhea in 152 cases of acute purulent otitis media in children was carried out. Forty strains of Haemophilus influenzae (26%), 35 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (23%), 33 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (22%), 32 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (21%), 3 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) (2%) and other 8 strains (5%) were isolated. Reviewing the annual data of otorrhea isolates from 1963 to 1980, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) of gram-positive cocci decreased, while Haemophilus influenzae of gram-negative bacIlli remarkably increased. Increase of Haemophilus influenzae is caused by the technical improvement of isolating the said bacterium and also actual increase of otitis media by the pathagen of Haemophilus influenzae. One-forth of the children with otorrhea showed the hard-curable process such as recurrence or recovery-delaying. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in a high rate (46.9%) from otor-rhea of the children with hard-curable otitis media.
A laryngeal white lesion (a LWL) often occurs in the vocal cords. It is often difficult to differenciate a malignant LWL from a non-malignant one under surgical microscope. The treatment is determined on the basis of a histpathological diagnosis from a biopsy specimen. But the reports sometimes differ and one histpathologist diagnoses a LWL as a non-malignant, such as epithelial hyperplasia or dysplasia, and the other diagnoses it as a malignant as cancer. Additional criterion is necessary to determine the true nature of a LWL. Protein is the most abundant organic component of the tissue, and its changes in component will be readily detected by biochemical procedures. The aim of the present report is to detect the changes of both the type and amount of protein so as to serve as a criterion to determine the malignancy of LWL. It is supposed that squamous epithlium contains certain characteristic proteins and a LWL contains some different ones. A comparison between the normally occuring proteins and the different ones has been used to detect dysplasia in tissue. O'Farrell's two-dimensional electrophoresis was used as it has a high resolution based on charges and molecular weight (MW) of proteins. Laryngeal polyp was used as a control. A leucoplakia and a laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) showed specific protein patterns. A laryngeal polyp showed a T-type pattern composed of four protein spots in the pH between 4.6 and 5.0 and in the MW between 40.000 and 50.000. A leucoplakia showed a broad protein pattern in the pH between 4.8 and 5.2, and in the MW between 45.000 and 60.000, which indicates a remarkableincrease in keratin. Laryngeal cancer showed a narrow I-type pattern in the MW between 40.000 and 50.000.
Clinical and sociomedical observations were made on 743 deaf children below the age of 10 years including 198 infants who visited the Hearing and Speech Clinic for Children of the Department of oto-rhino-laryngology, Teikyo University Hospital. The following results were obtained.1) The number of infants referred from public health centers has increased since 1979 when the early screening system for deafness started at public health centers. 2) Since we had started our study on brain damaged children with deafness, the number of patients with cerebral palsy increased and their age of the first visit to our clinic became younger.3) Most patients with deafness due to rubella were born during the limited period between 1975 and 1977 when rubella prevailed in Japan. 4) In about a half of the children with acquired deafness, deafness was caused by meningitis. A85-1456-23588
Auditory postauricular myogenic responses (P. A. R.) to clicks and tone pips of 500, 1, 000 and 2, 000 Hz were recorded in 30 waking children aged 0 to 5 years to evaluate the PAR as a tool of objective audiometry. The response showed biphasic pattern consisting of a negative wave (N) and a positive one (P). An application of relatively large-sized active electrodes and a simultaneous recording from the both ears made it easy to detect the responses to clicks, and the potential is more easily recognizable than other auditory electric potentials except for brainstem responses during sleep. More than 90% of the subjects showed definite P. A. R. at 40dB HL of click and 2, 000 Hz tone pip. However, the incidence of the responses to 500 and 1, 000 Hz tone pips were lower than those to click and 2, 000Hz tone pip. The P. A. R. to clicks or pure tone stimuli of 2, 000 Hz is useful for objective screening of hearing in young children.
The aim of this study is to investigate the chronological changes in the vocalis muscle histologically. The materials were excised human larynges at necropsy which were preserved in ten percent formalin solution. In order to select specimens without abnormal anatomical changes, the specimens from with otolaryngological diseases, hematological problems and severe metabolic disorders were excluded. Cross-sections with exact right angle against the longitudinal direction were resected at the midportion of the vocalis muscle, and the sections were embedded in paraffin, cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Sudan-III and Sudan-black-B. One hundred and seventy-five specimens, eighty-nine males and eighty-six females, were measured in the cross-sectional area, the number of muscle fibers and the rate of lipofuscin deposition. The age ranged between fetus and eighty-five years. Twenty-five specimens which retained the muscular structure well were measured in the number and the diameter of red and white muscle fibers. The cross-sectional areas of vocalis muscle were increased by fourth decade and then de-creased with aging in males, but there was no significant changes in females. While the total numbers of muscle fibers and the numbers of white muscle fibers were significantly reduced as the age advances, the red muscle fibers did not show significant changes in number. In the first decade, both red and white muscle fibers did not show apparent differences in fiber diameter, on the other hand, after the second decade there appeared a tendency that the diameter of white muscle fibers became greater. The population of muscle fibers with longer diameter increased with age. This tendency was more noticeable in white muscle fibers. Lipofuscin pigment, one of the substances which appears and deposits in some organs as the age advances, deposited in vocalis muscle fibers as well, and the rate of accumulation was significantly increased according with aging.
It is important to learn the generating mechanism of the EP, and the distribution of DC potentials in the stria vascularis of the guinea pig cochlea was investigated by inserting a recording microelectrode into the scara media through the stria vascularis. The microelectrode was driven at 3 microns per second by a special hydraulic autodrive micromanipulator and the position of the electrode tip was identified by the electrophoretic dye-injection (marking method). Several positive DC steps were always recorded from various parts of the stria vascularis, and the experimental results obtained by marking methods suggested that the source of these positive DC steps was the intracellular potential of the strial cell. The data substantiated that the intracellular potentials of the strial cells are positive, whereas it is common knowledge that the intracellular potential should be negative. In most cases, 3 steps of the positive DC potential could be recorded corresponding to the layers of the strial cells. It must be presumed that the positive DC steps were recorded at the moment of pushing through the strial cell membrane by a recording microelectrode, and the largest 3rd positive step arose from the marginal cell membrane facing the intermediate cell. In the marginal cells, the positivity of the intracellular DC potential reached as high as +80mV, which is still a few millivolts less than the positivity of the EP. It has been well known that the negative potential is generally recorded from inside the cell, as the membrane is much more permeable to K-ions than to Na-ions are extruded from inside the cell by active sodium ion transport. Suppose that the positive component of the EP is the positive secretion potential generated by the electrogenic potassium ion pump located in the strial cell membrane as having been postulated by Kuijpers, it could be assumed that the strial cell membrane is selectively permeable to Na-ions and not to K-ions. On this assumption, it might be expected that the positive intracellular DC potentials in the strial cells are composed of both the sodium ion concentration gradient between the interior and the exterior of the strial cell and the electrogenic active transport of K-ions in the strial cell membrane.
Fairly good results have already been obtained in the treatment of laryngeal cancer. The five year cure rate is approximately 70 percent. However, in the patients with Stage III or IV laryngeal carcinomas, nearly 75% of 5 year survivors have lost their larynx. In order to get better cure rate without sacrificing the larynx, it is necessary to detect carcinoma in its earlier stage. Mass screening will undoubtedly offer the best opportunity of earlier detection. But, because of low incidence of laryngeal cancer, mass screening must inevitably be limitted to some peoples who are thought to be high risk to laryngeal cancer. In our country, mass screenings for cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and breast have already generally been carried out and are highly appreciated because many early carcinomas were detected, but the detection rates of these mass screenings are less than 0.2%. If, the detection rate of mass screening were better than those of these cancers, the screening is thought to be "effective" In this study, the "laryngeal cancer high risk group" was defined to those peoples who are older than 50 years and have horseness. Disease distribution, especially the incidence of laryn-geal cancer, in this high risk group was studied. This study was cooperated by 53 ENT doctors who work in their private clinics. All patients who visited these private clinics and belonged to high risk group were registered. The number of registered patients amounted to 981. In these patients, 16 laryngeal carcinomas (1.7%) and 7 hypopharyngeal carcinomas (0.7%) were detected. This detection rate was far more excellent than I expected. This result may indicate the possibility to standardize the mass screening for laryngeal cancer. I conclude that the mass screening of laryngeal cancer is thought to be quite effective and practical method, if it is carried out for the high risk group.