The antibody against viral capsid antigen (VCA) of Epstein-Bair (EB) virus was studied in 40 patients with malignant tumors of the nasopharynx. Out of 40 cases, there were 32 carcinomas (squamous cell carcinoma 18, undifferentiated carcinoma 7, lymphoepithelioma 3, transitional cell carcinoma 2 and adenoid cystic carcinoma 2) and 8 sarcomas. Patients were treated by radiotherapy alone, radiotherapy accompanied by chemotherapy or radiotherapy followed by radical neck dissection. Titration of anti-VCA antibody was done by means of fluorescent antibody indirect method (Kawamura's method). The results obtained were as follows: 10 patients before tretment had a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 1 : 421 and a positive rate of 60%. In 13 patients during treatment, there was an increase in the anti-VCA antibodies (GMT 1 : 880) and the positive rate was up to 77%. In patients at the end of treatment, GMT was 1 : 1381 and the positive rate 89%. From the above results, it is concluded that in the present study the anti-VCA antibodies increased during and at the end of tretment. In 16 patients with recurrence or metastasis a mean titer was 1 : 1809 and a positive rate was 100%. On the contrary, 6 patients in remission of more than 3 years had a titer of 1 : 319 and a positive rate of 50% . Therefore, it is concluded that in cases of recurrence or metastasis, there was a significant increase in the anti-VCA antibodies and in cases in remission of more than 3 years, there was a decrease in the antibodies. We conclude that the anti-VCA titer can be applied clinically as an useful parameter for the prognosis of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
The present paper describes fundamental knowledge on the carbon dioxide laser and its clinical applications. The CO2 laser which has a wavelength of 10. 6 micrometer is almost completely absorbed by any biological tissue regardless of its pigmentation and is directly converted into heat energy. The mechanisms in destructing the soft tissue with CO2 laser irradiation consist of rapid vaporization of water component of the tissue and thermal denaturation of tissue protein. The advantages of CO2 laser as a light knife are as follows; 1) Tissue removal by vaporization with extraordinary hemostatic effect. 2) Excellent visualization without mechanical contact. 3) Exact localization of destuction within an extrely small area. Furthermore, one can utilize CO2 laser for microscopic surgery by coupling the laser to a surgical microscope with a specially designed delivery manipulater and micromanipulater.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate how the position and the shape of the vocal cord are altered by contraction of the laryngeal muscles, and thus to determine the role of each laryngeal muscle in adjusting the vibrator, i. e. the vocal cord. In excised canine larynges, the changes in position and shape of the vocal cord when each muscle was electrically stimulated were observed and photographed from above as well as from the inner side. Then the larynges were rapidly immersed in cold alcohol solution of -30°C and fixed in the stimulated condition. They were dehydrated with u freeze substitution method, and later seved for histological examinations. The results obtained are the followings: 1. Whe the the cricothyroid muscle is stimulated, the vocal cord is stretched, elongated and slightly adducted to paramedian position. The edge of the vocal cord becomes thin. 2. Contraction of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle results in abduction of the vocal cord to lateral position and the glottis is widely opened. The edge of the vocal cord becomes slightly thick, however, it becomes thin in the width of the entire vocal cord. 3. Among the adductor muscles, there are significant differences in regulating shape of the vocal cord. When the thyroarytenoid muscle is stimulated, the vocal cord is markedly shortened and thickened and the middle part of the vocal cord is bulged. On the other hand, the cord is slightly elongated and becomes slightly thin at the edge when the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle is stimulated. 4. On the histological examination of frontal section of the vocal cord, size and shape of the subepithelial layer, i. e. lamina propria is changed by contraction of each muscle. Contraction of the thyroarytenoid muscle results in an increase in cross sectional area whereas a decrease in the area results from contraction of the other three muscles. 5. Contraction of the arytenoid muscle causes adduction of the arytenoid region, however, it does not affect shape of the membranous portion of the vccal cord markedly. 6. From the findings described above, it appears that the laryngeal muscles play important roles to change the shape of the vocal cord, as well as to determine the position of the vocal cord. This gives us the bases to discuss laryngeal adjustments which produce different patterns of vocal cord vibration in various ways of phonation.
In this study, j3-phenyl ethyl alcohol, exaltlide, methyl cyclopentenolone, iso-valeric acid, rundecalactone, scatol, dl-camphor, phenol, diallyl sulfide and acetic acid were selected as standard odorous substances and 10-n solutions of these substances were used for this test. The olfactory sensitivity has been indicated by the index number of these solutions, but this method is not proctical for clinical use. A graph, which is called the olfactogram, was drawn to show the distribution of olfactory acuity for these odorous substances and this graph was eval uated for clinical use. The standard 0 level of olfactory acuity was set on the basis of the mean value of the olfactory detection threshold of normal humans who were around 20 years of age. The threshold of each case was obtained for the standard odorous substances and the olfactogram was drawn. The change of the olfactory acuity due ageing was studied by this method. The results were as follows; 1) The olfactory acuity showed the highest level until 20 years of age. Over 20 years of age, the olfactory acuity decreased. 2) Especially from 50 years of age, the olfactory acuity decreased rapidiy except for acetic acid and di-camphot. 3) The differences of the olfactory acuity between the group of under 9 years and that of over 70 years of age were 1. 46 in the olfactory detection threshoid and 1. 14 in the recognitition threshold. 4) The difference between the olfactory detection threshoid and the recognition threshoid was almost I except for acetic acid and dl-camphor. The olfactograms, like audiograms in the audiometry, made it easier to compare the olfactory acuity in clinical application. In the olfactory test, the age factor must be considered.
To make an assay whether or not a medicament has an actual value for bringing in the doubie blind test of inner ear diseases, an experimental design was presented: 1. Recording of cochlear microphonics (CM) from the basal turn of the cochlea of guinea pigs, 2. Observation of the change in the amplitude of CM by applying NaCl crystals on the round window membrane 3. Observation of change of CM after applying both the medicament and Nacl crystals. 4. Statistical comparison of the resuls. Meclophenoxate hydrochloride was used as a medicament in this study. This medicament had shown a significant effect in decreasing the NaCl-effects on CM. It seems worthwhile to utilize Meclophenoxate hydrochloride for the double blind test in the inner ear disease.
The incidence of vertigenous complaint has tended to increase among the aged people. Many of patients are suffering from the disturbance of cerebral circulation due to arteriosclerosis, hypertension and hypotension etc. We were interested in studying how vertigo was induced by disturbance of the circulation in brainstem and labrynth by vertebrobasilar blood flow insufficiency. Therefore, we investigated the regional blood flow of brainstems in dogs by means of the crossed thermocouple method (double needle type). Also, systemic arterial blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured by a mercury manometer and the internal carotid arterial blood flow by an electromagnetic flow meter. In the first stage of this experiment we used anti-vertigo drugs such as vasodilating drugs, metabolic activators, tranquilizing drugs, antihistaminic drugs, and drugs for autonomic nervous system in order to investigate the influence on regional blood flow. Most of the vasodilating drugs caused increases in heart rate, regional blood flow of the brainstem and internal carotid arterial blood flow, and decreases in mean blood pressure, but sodium bicarbonate increased only the regional blood flow of the brainstem. Other anti-vertigo drugs also increased regional blood flow of the brainstem in a similar manner to the aforementioned vasodilating drugs.
A female infant with complete cleft palate with a large tumor protruding from the mouth was reported. This tumor was covered with skin and was found to arise from roof of the nasal cavity through the palatal cleft. Complete removal of the tumor was performed at about i month of ages without any complication. Histological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of skin, fatty tissue, striated muscle, mucous membrane and bone, and the so-called epignathus was diagnosed. The pathogenesis of this tumor is still unknown and its classification is rather complicated. However, based on both microscopic and macroscopic findings of the tumors which have been reported in the literature, we considered that socalled epignathus could be devided into the following two groups. . 1. Nasopharyngeal teratomatous tumors including dermoid, teratoid tumor and true teratoma, which is caused by dislocation of the embryonic tissue into the pharynx. 2. Genuine Epiganathus which contains imcomplete extremities, fingers or differentiated organs. It is a kind of unmatured double monster and caused by dislocation of a germ at twin formation. From the view point of our classification above-mentioned, the case reported in this paper should be called, in strict means, nasopharyngeal teratoma. Cleft palate, which combines very rarely with nasopharyngeal teratoma, suggests the migration of embroryonic tissue into the nasopharynx at the very early stage of fetal life before the union of the bilateral palates.