In five subjects with chronic otitis media or middle ear anomaly, a silver-ball electrode was inserted in the extradural space through the temporal bone in the middle ear surgery, and auditory evoked responses from the extradural electrode were observed by an average response computer. In spite of remarkable individual difference the typical waveform consisted of three or four components of which the first one appeared at the latency of appreximately 4050 msec. and its full time course amounted to 250 msec. The amplitude of the extradural responses showed five to six times as much as the response simultaneously recorded on the scalp. The features of the extradural responses were discussed from the previous works in depth electroencephalography.
The present study was designed to elucidate the clinically significant four phenomena : threshold tone decay (TTD), temporary threshold shift in Bekesy fixed-frequency audiomety (TTS), wide separation between continuous and interrupted test signal tracings in Bekesy fixed-frequency audiometry, and reduced peak-to-peak amplitude of the Bekesy tracings. An amplitude modulated tone was introduced as a test signal in both the Bekesy audiometry and the self-recording TTD test, and comparisons between the continuous and interrupted tracings were made., The magnitude of amplitude fluctuation in the amplitude modulated tone was variable from 1db to 4db to in 1-db steps. The results and conclusions were as follows : (1) Both Bekesy and the TTD tracings were obtained with amplitude modulated tones for subjccts who showed marked TTD and TTS pheno mena for non-modulated pure tones. All the sublects showed gradual diminution in TTS and TTD with an increase in amplitude modulation of the test tones from 1db to 4db. (2) Wide separation of the Bekesy tracings for a continuous tone and an interrupted tone was decreased with an increase in amplitude modulation of the test tone. (3) For subjects who showed reduced peaktopeak amplitudes (less than 2.5), the reduced amplitude in their continuous tone tracings were increased and came to approximatel the amplitudes of the interrupted tracings in accordance with an increase in amplitude modulation of the test tones, (4) Increase in amplitude modulation from 1db to 4db could seemly mask all fcur pathological phenomena. The degree of auditory adaptation at threshold levels can be seen to vary with the extent in db of amplitude modulation. The patterns of the amplitude modulated tracinge showed transitions between the most marked abnomal adaptation to the continuous tones and the normal (non-adaptation) findings to the linterrupted tones, according to the extent of db in the modulation.
Previous study on the pneumatic room of the temporal bone brought the hypothetical conclusion that relativity between the components of the duct and sinus were so close that more the duct was reduced the larger was the sinus growth. It is the purpose of this study to try to confirm the hypothesis in the case of the middle ear. Mastoid of the 22 pigs were eliminated for the purpose of Keeping a condition of experimentally controlled pneumatisations-suppression. The changes in the developmental process of the eustachian tube were observed and measured microscopically. The following results were obtained. 1) The cross section of the eustachian tube in the side of eliminated mastoid became larger dur ing one and half mouth after operation, and the mucous epithelium and subepithelial connective tissue were also hypertrophic to motivate the functioning. 2) Diameter of the eustachian tube and the air quantity in the mastoid cells was keptin inverse. 3) Regeneration of bone begins 3 weeks after the increase of mastoid-regeneration. During the process the upper mucous epithelium was regenerated. These regenerations were recognized as a similar process as in the physiological growth of human body.
In 1963, the authors reported the cases of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Nikko, Japan. This necesitated a pollen survey in making diagnosis of pollinosis. Therefore the pollen counts were carried out in Tokyo during 1964 and in Nikko from March to May in 1963 and 1964. Vaseline-coated slides were exposed to air for 24 hours. The results obtained were illustrated in the figures. Three pollinating seasons were observed in Tokyo. Tree season was recognised in February-May, grass season in May-November, and ragweed season in August-Septeber. Predominant pollens were Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar), Chamaecyparis obtusa, Pinaceae, Ambrosia elatior andDigitaria adscendens. In Nikko, tree season was recognised in MarchMay and predominant pollens were Cryptomeria japonica, Betulaceae and Pinus densiflora. The highest peak of Japanese cedar pollen count was observed in eary April with a maximum count of 70 grains in Nikko. Effects of humidity on dispersal of Japanese cedar pollen were observed. It was shown that there was a correlation between humidity and dispersal of pollens. Some clinical observations on antigenicity of pollens were carried out. bPollen counts as a factor in the development of Japanese cedar pollinosis was studied. Some reasons for absence of pollinosis in Japan were discussed. A reason might be attributed to the lack of investigations on pollinosis in Japan. The authors emphasized the importance and necessity of pollen survey in Japan.
It has long been known that the incidence and course of otitis media are influenced by the const- itution of the patient. In order to contribute to further clarification of the above situation in terms of the antigen antibody factor, 22 infants with otitis media purulenta chronica were examined for allergy, and the following knowledge has ther- eby been obtained. 1) Otitis media purulenta chronica of infancy may be divided into the suppurative type (simple type) and allergic type; and the latter may be subdivided into the bacterial allergic type, food allergic type, and allergic type due to an unident- ified antigen. 2) In infancy, the food allergy type is of higher incidence than the bacterial allergy type, The incidence of a mixture of these types is very low. 3) Many of the drum membranes have large perforation in the allergic type and small perfora- tion in the suppurative type. 4) The otorrhea in the allergic type is mostly mucopurulent ; in the suppurative type, mostly purulent. Bacteriologically, the otorrhea in the allergic type is mostly of mixed infection; in the suppurative type, mostly of simple infection. 5) Many of the allergic cases have allergic diseases in their past history and/or family histo- ry. Their otitis media often takes long to heal, and the disease is often recurrent.
In the recent seven years(1958_??_64)313 cases were diagnosed as the cancer of larynx in our clinic. he occupation of those patients was surveyed. The results were as follows. 1) Occupations were divided into IOgroups, and the number of cases in each group was as follows ; merchants 125 cases (40.0%), laborers 72 cases (23.0%), farmers and fishermen 29 cases (9.2%), people engaged in supervisory and managing occupations 17 cases (5.3%), people in highly specialized professions (doctors, teachers, priests, etc.) 16 cases (5.1%), housewives 16 cases (5.1%), people engaged in service business (guards, policemen, cooks, etc.)15 cases (4.8%), businessmen 13 cases (4.1%), employees in communication and transportation business Io cases (3.0%) and miners 0 cases (0%). 2) Male 289 cases (92%), female 24 cases (8%). 3) Graduates of primary school make up 70.0%of all. 4) 70% are occupational independents (non-employees). Cancer of larynx is predominant in the sixties of male Merchants are often affected (40.0%). An active and progressive personality and an abuse of voice seems to have a close relation to the disease.
For the purpose of eliminating the troublesome mastoid cavity after tympanoplasty, some surgical procedures have been devised, which consist of preservation of the external ear canal, so that the operative mastoid cavity is primarily closed, with the use of fascia, periost or vein as a tympanic graft. Surgical procedures are as follows : At the first place, mastoidectomy is carried out without sacrifice of bony bridge using Shambaugh's endaural incision. Then, the meatal skin incision is made on the posterior canal skin and on it the window is made to see the drum and to prepare the vascular bed on the undersurface of the drum to receive the graft. Thereafter, the drum is separated from sulcus and elevated, but the anterior superior portion is preserved, which serves for reconstructive pro- cedure of the drum by giving the fixed point. After an adequate tympanoplastic procedure is used in accordance with middle ear condition, the drum is repaired with fascia or other tympanic graft on the undersurface of the drum and recon- structed. Such reconstructive procedures as de- scribed above are easily performed through the meatal window which is made on the early stage in operation. Finally the meatal skin is replaced and the window is closed. With these procedures, it seems that nearly normal ear canal and fully satisfactory results in hearing can he obtained. In Addition, healing process is more rapidly and less postoperative after care is needed than in classical tympanoplasty.
The purpose of this investigation is to establish a galvanic test as qualitative and quantitative estimation method for the human equilibrium and to analyse mechanism of maintenance of equilibrium' First, the intensity of galvanic stimulation is set-tled to be weak enough not to irritate the skin where the (bipolar and bi-retroauricular) electrodes are placed but to be strong enough to make a sway and falling reaction when the subject stands in Mann's position. A 10 second stimulation of 0.25 mA does not usually cause the swaying or falling reaction in normal subjects; 0.5mA stimulation makes the half of them fall;1.0mA stimulation induces to fall quickly in most of all examinees. Secondly, recording of the swaying or falling movements caused by galvanic stimulation are performed by means of acceleration registration technique (Accelerometer→Strain meter→Oscillograph). The falling times are plotted and expressed on the graphic scale which is similar to the "Calorigram", as author names it as "Galvanogram". Otherwise, analyses of the curves of GAR are made as follows; 1) direction of swaying or falling movements of the body; 2) pattern of swaying, such as i) "initial wave", ii) upward or downward deflection, and iii) falling pattern. Twenty healthy adults are examined and thefollowing results are obtained; 1) Short and small "initial wave to the cath-ode" is first observed on GAR immediately after galvanic stimulation (0.5mA_??_1.0mA, 3_??_5V), which usually appears at least within one second after stimulation is given. 2) Following immediately after the 'initial wave', swaying movements to the anode appear. Swaying and/or falling movements to the anode are almost always induced by 1.0mA stimulation. Meanwhile, neither the stimulation of 0.25mA ind-uces any remarkable sway of the body nor "initial wave" on GAR. 3) No significant difference of falling time or GAR pattern between the stimulation given to the left and to the right is observed statistically in every different intensities of timulation. 4) Average of falling time are 8.3 seconds in 0, 25mA stimulation: 4.4 seconds in 0.5mA; and 1.9 sec in 1.0mA stimulation. 5) Accelerations of the head movements thro-ugh the course of examination are 0.018g in the Mann's position when they close their eyes; 0.03g in the 0.25mA stimulation; 0.0568 in 0.5mA; and 0.1 to 0.12g at 1.0mA. 6) No side effect or discomfortable reaction is observed.
It is well known that the momentary sways of the human body in standing position as shown in cephalogram has never been studied. The purpose of this study is to examine exactly the human equilbrium in standing position by means of recording acceleration registogram (ARG). The subjects testd are 20 normal adults. The accelerometer (120A-ID) is fixed on the top of the helmet as the effective plane of the accelerometer is just right angle with the frontooccipital axis of the head. Each subject wearing the helmet stands on normal position and Mann's position for 40 seconds. Also he stands on the plank of the electric goniometer (Honjo) till he falls down from the plank. The body movement of the subjects during the test is recorded by means of acceleration registrogram (ARG). The waves of ARG in normal standing position are composed of waves of short amplitude (less than 0.1g) either the subject closes his eyes or not. The waves of ARG in Mann's position are mainly composed of waves of short amplitude either the subject closes his eyes or not. Occasiong) are recognized, but they are not observed continuously. When the subject stands on the plank of the goniometer the waves of ARG (Gonio-ARG) are mainly composed of waves of short amplitude, while a few waves having medium amplitude are recognized, but they are not observed continuosly. The waves of ARG in normal position and Mann's position have comparatively larger amplitude at the first one-fourth period than at the next three fourth. However, the waves of Gonio-ARG have larger amplitudes at the last half period when he closes his eyes. The influence of vision upon the waves of ARG in normal position is hardly proved, and great influence of vision upon the waves of ARG is clarified when he stands in Mann's position or on the plank of the goniometer. The whip-foot does not influence on the patterns of ARG in standing position. The waves of ARG has several patterns, e.g., the pattern deviating to the left, to the right or the pattern withont deviation.