One hundred and seventeen cases of cystic lesions of the maxilla treated at Mie University hospital for 10 years from 1963 to 1972 were reviewed. Cystic lesions of the maxilla could be simply divided into, those related etiologically and anatomically to the teeth and those which were not. The former group included 24 periodontal cysts (20.6%) and 3 follicular cysts (2.6%), while the later group was composed of 73 postoperative maxillary cysts (62.4%), 10 nasoalveolar cysts (8.6%), 5 muceceles of the maxillary sinus (4.3%) and 2 nasopalatine cysts (1.8%). It is of interest that there was a little difference in incidence of nasoalveolar cyst by sex and age; most of them occurred between forties and fifties in age and there was dominant predilection for female (80% of all cases). The statistical analysis was made of the clinical history with attention to dental health, physical examination with a special concern for the nose, sinuses, mouth and the cysts. The need for complete preoperative assessment of the cystic lesions of the maxilla was emphasized. From scanning electron microscopic observations, three dimentional architectures of the cysts were characterized in the following five major types; 1) the cell surface morphologies covered with dense population of cilia with wave-like arrangement of each ciliary tuft, 2) numerous patches of the non-ciliated cell distributed among paucity of the ciliated cell, 3) the non-ciliated cells polygonal in surface outline with irregular hexogonal and pentagonal shapes arranged in mosaic pattern, 4) the non-ciliated cells with projecting domed surface covered by a lot of microvilli and 5) the conified epithelial surface with desquamating process such as overlapping cell borders, the formation of intercellular clefts and sloughing off from underlying cell layers. Correlative studies by the light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy on the same tissues will be helpful in interpreting features of the epithelial surface of the cystic lesions of the maxilla.
There are two prerequisites for the indication of hearing-improvement operation in cases of atresia auris congenita, that is, confirmation of the site, and size of the tympanic cavity and the patency of the eustachian tube. For this purpose tubotympanographic examinations were carried out with the aid of newly devised nasopharyngoscope. At a clear sight of the pharyngeal ostium of the eustachian tube, a polyethylene tube, 1.3mm in outside diameter, was inserted into the eustachian tube through a narrow metal pipe attached to themaininstrument until it came into the tympanum. After the nasopharyngoscope was drawn out while the polyethylene tube was kept remained, 0.2-0.5m1 of contrast medium (80% Angio Conray) warmed to body temperature beforehand in order to avoid inducing nausea and vertigo, was poured through the tube. X-ray examinations were performed in the Schuller and Hirtz positions. In noncooperative patients, e.g., infants and young children, those procedures were done under general anesthesia with intramuscular injections of Ketamine hydrochloride. Since 1970, 23 cases were examined with no complications nor sequelae. Another merit of this method was in identification of missing tympanic cavity by ventilation through the indwelling polyethylene tube during surgery. Additional findings were presented regarding the figure of the pharyngeal ostium of the eustachian tube in malformed ear. Morphological aberrations were seen more frequently in malformed patients than the normal, suggesting a correlation of malformed development between the sound conducting apparatus and the eustachian tube.
Color analysis of nasal mucosa was done by visual comparison with Munsell's Color Standards. The results were summarized as follows: 1) Hue was distributed from 2.5R to 7.5RP. The maximum incidence was found in the range of 7.5RP-10RP on the lower turbinate and in 1ORP-2.5R on the nasal septum. 2) Value range of the lower turbinate was 6-8, and of the nasal nasal septum was 5-7. 3) Chroma range of the lower turbinate was 4-10, and of the nasal septum was 8-12. 4) Value and Chroma of allergic pale nasal, mucosa were 8 and 4, and those of reddish nasal mucosa in acute rhinitis were 6 and 10 respectively.
The results were as follows: 1. The occurrence of hearing impairment was 23 men and 14 women per 10, 000 population. The occurrence of hearing impairment tend to be lower in urban areas than in farming communities. 2. Hearing impairment increased with advancing age and reached its peak among people in their 70's. 3. The main causes of hearing impairment were otitis media, aging (presbycusis), and hereditary disposition. Other causes included head trauma, acoustic trauma, pregnancy and Meniere's disease. 4. The second-born suffered comparatively fewer hearing impairment than their siblings. 5. Tinnis was seldom found in cases of hereditary hearing loss, but was frequently found in cases of hearing impairment due to head trauma, acoustic trauma and Meniere's disease.
It is important to make the immunological role of the tonsil clear, comparing the responses of tonsil with those of the spleen and lymphnodes which are known as peripheral lymphatic organs. These experiments were condutcd to learn whether the antigenic information in the tonsil induced the antibody formation of anothe lymphatic organs. The experimental procedures are as follows: 1) Adult rabbits were sensitized intravenously and peritonsillarlly with SRBC in vivo, and tonsil, spleeen and lymphnode cells were cultured in vitro. Simultaneously, non-sensitized spleen cells were cultured with sensitized tonsil cells, with sensitized spleen cells and with sensitized lymphnode cells. 2) 4 days after, the antibody forming cells (plaque forming cells) were meassured by Jerne's hemolytic plaque technique. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: 1) Live cells of 42% were harvested after 4-day culture. 2) PFC number per 106 wore away to 1/2-1/10, in both single culture and mixed culture. 3) On the whole, mixed culture was inclined to increase its number of PFC. 4) In the group of one-time i. v. sensitization, only IgM-PFC of tonsil increased in number in mixed culture. 5) In the group of repeated i. v. sensitization, every organ had the tendency of increase in number of PFC. 6) In the group of peritonsillar sensitization, a small number of PFC was recognized in tonsil.Especially none of IgM-PFC was found in single culture, but mixed culture resulted is appearance of PFC. Discussions were done on the mechanism of the increase in number of PFC in mixed culture, and the ability of transfer of antigenic information of the tonsil.