The labyrinthine influences on muscle spindle activity were studied on decerebrated cats by recording single spindle discharges from ankle flexor and extensor muscles. Fluctuation of gamma activity by rotatory accerelatory stimulation was revealed. Effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy and spinal transection was also observed. Following conclusions were obtained from these experiments: 1) The labyrinth exerts influences of two different types upon spindle activity by rotatory stimulation; one is non-reciprocal facilitatory influence and the other is reciprocal one. 2) The labyrinth exerts ipsilaterally non-reciprocal facilitatory effects. 3) The labyrinthine reciprocal influence conducts unilaterally from both labyrinths in rotatory stimulation. 4) Impulses conducting the labyrinthine reciprocal influence descend along lateral part of the ipsilateral spinal cord, probably along the reticulo-spinal pathway.
The author made some clinical investigations on 609 cases with the so-called specific abnormal sensation such as feeling of foreign body or stenosis in the area of hypopharynx, larynx, or upper esophagus, but any remarkable inflammatory change, neoplastic processes, or foreign bodies were not found. But, on the contrary, there were many cases whose complaints were considered due to post nasal discharge, hypertrophied pharyngeal tonsils, abnormality of the epiglottis, mild inflammatory changes in the pharynx or larynx, esophagitis in upper segment, spasm of esophageal orifice, abnormal styloid process, and hypochromemia. To these facts, the personaly test of 137 cases showed asthenic personal character in about 80% of them, and the psychiatric examination showed that some of them were thought to be neurosis patients. But among these facts such specific abnormal sensation in hypopharynx was considered to have more important relations with hypertrophied lingual tonsils and spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine. Because, compared with healthy persons, such patients showed very frequently such tonsils and the remarkable spondylosis deformans of cervical spine, especially in the 4th to the 6th. And it is already acknowledged, that persons aged from 30 to 49 years show the ossification of laryngeal cartilages. From these facts it is easily supposed, that the area between the hypopharynx and the esopageal orifice is irritated by various factors. Adding to these facts the author performed some animal experiments on rabbits to resect some of the cricoideal cartilage, and measure the change of the internal pressure of the esophageal orifice during deglutition. After the operation the degree of the change of the pressure was obviously decreased. From the above investigations, the author believes, that for the occurence of the specific abnormal sensation in hypopharyns, some distinct or indistinct changes of the organs related to the deglutition plays an important role.
Since Coller et al., a marked oliguria continuing for a few days after several kinds of operation has been clinically noted. In 1950, Shibusawa et al. assumed that the oliguria should be due to antidiuretic substance existing in patients' serum in postoperative condition. This view was subsequently supported by Ariel and Miller, and has been widely accepted. The present author devised a new, acurate and simple method for measuring antidiuretic substance in serum and attemped to evaluate the fluctuatin of the substance after several kinds of operation in the field of otolaryngology.
For the purpose to find out the effects of sound stimulation not only on the organ of hearing but also on all the other organs of the body, changes in serum vitamin A were determined by the CarrPrice reaction test giving pure tone and thermal noise to healthy rabbits. Results ob tained were as follows: 1. Changes, particularly a marked decrease in serum vitamin A due to sound stimulation were observed. 2. In the case to which stimulation was given for a short period, however, serum vitamin A showed a gradual decrease after showing a transient increase. On the other hand, when the hearing organ was stimulated for a long period, serum vitamin A decreased at once without showing transient Increase. 3. Regardless to the nature of stimulating sound, stimulation by sound of a great intensity produced a decrease in serum vitamin A. The longer the stimulation time was, the more remarkable was the decrease; therefore, the recovery time was delayed. 4. A decrease in serum vitamin A due to sound stimulation was inhibited by sympathetic blocking agents to a certain extent.
There had been only few clinical observations about the occurrence of nasal septal deviation associated with structural changes of lateral nasal walls, particularly those of superior and mid-turbinates. In order to clarify the correlation between them, a tomographical observation was carried out on clinical cases ofter careful fundamental study of the approach on many cadavers. The results obtained by this method were as follows: 1. Among 20 cadavers, 2 cases showed nasal septal deviation due to either protrusion or hypertrophy of the turbinates in association with developmental abnormality of the ethmoid. 2. Tomography based upon a specially examined photographical technic was able to well illustrate the structure of the olfactory fissure and its neighboring bony tissue both in cadavers and living individuals, and was very helpful to study the problems in clinical cases. 3. By clinical observation, it was confirmed that there was a close relationship between the occurrence of septal deviation and protrusion or hypertrophy of the lateral wall of the turbinates, and in some cases the septum seemed to be deviated by the compression due to a developmental abnormality of the superior and mid-turbinates. The protrusion and hypertrophy of the turbinates were probably due to asymmetrical development of the ethmoid per se, and it was suspected that the occurrence of septal deviation might be influenced strongly by an abnormality of the sphenoid or maxilla which was considered to have a similar developmental process embryologically.
It is not an infrequent experience to see localized subcutaneous hemorrhage or congestion in the eyelid, conjunctiva or neck not always ipsilaterally but sometimes contralaterally after an oto-rhinolaryngological operation, especially after a paranasal sinus operation, in spite of disapproval of abnormal observation, such as hemorrhagic diathesis etc. The authors now report those on account of having experience of the same several cases as above mentioned ones, and are inclined to trace their origins. Autonomic nervous function of these patients was situated on very unstable or unbalanced condition, especially circumstances of parasympathetic function was conspicuously excitable. This hemorrhagic phenomenon as a result of E. Saito's experimental study on the rat, is concluded as follows: Namely irritation caused by various excessive stimulations from operation or its injury, chiefly through the agency of autonomic nervous fibers and abnormal constitutional factor, i. e. remarkable unbalanced condition of autonomic nervous function, bring on vascular disturbance with edema, vasodilatation, stagnation of blood cells and hemorrhage. These facts have included the authors to interprete the hemorrhagic lesion in the eyelid as a manifestation of the Reilly's phenomenon.
We investigated the relation of the function of the ganglion nodosum and the sensory reflex of the cricothyreoideus anterior muscle, the cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle and the cricoarytenoideus posticus muscle using healthy 30 dogs. 1) In case of the electrical stimulus at the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, the time that the electrical stimulus passed through the ganglion nodosum was within the limits of about 9.0m sec. to 12.0m sec. and then appeared the impulse of the sensory reflex of the cricothyreoideus anterior muscle after about 6msec. 2) In case the recurrent nerve was severed, the axonreflex of the cricothyreoideus anterior muscle appeared in the incubation time of 2.5m sec. to 3.5m sec. and then it also appeared in contrary healthy side. 3) From this fact it seems that the ganglion nodosum change it's character and the both ganglion nodosum sympathize each other by cutting the recurrent nerve. 4) The axonreflex was not observed in the cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle and the cricoarytenoideus posticus muscle, but proper reflex of the cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscle, the cricoarytenoideus posticus muscle was almost equal in the incubation time which 19.0m sec.
The author applied cupulometry and Hallpike's caloric Test to 1100 cases of vertigo. The results were as follows: (1) Most of The cases with vertigo showed vestibular asymmetry. (2) Vestibular asymmetry could be classified into two types on cupulogram, namely. Parallel type and crossing type, (3) The focus of Vertigo was determined in 183cases by various clinical examinations and operations. a) Labyrinth organ (119 cases) i) meniere's syndrome (Typical) 63 cases ii) apoplectic meniere's disease 43 _??_ iii) labyrinth syphilis 6 _??_ iv) congenital atresia of the ear 3 _??_ v) Herpes zoster of the ear 4 _??_ b) acoustic nerve (17 cases) i) Tumor 16 cases ii) Trauma 1 _??_ c) Ventricular Ependymoma 5 _??_ d) cerebellar tumor 12 _??_ e) brain stem tumor 18 _??_ f) Temporal lobe tumor 7 _??_ g) Frontal lobe tumor 5 _??_ (4) most cases of Parallel type showed directional preponderance in Hallpikes caloric test. This type was seen in vertigo of peripheral and also central origin. (5) Directional preponderance of peripheral origin decreased by the treatment, but that of central origin did not decrease. (6) most cases of crossing type on cupulogram showed canal parese in Hallpikes caloric test and always had vertigo of peripheral origin. This type showed no change by the treatment.