The following problems were investigated using three histochemical techniques demonstrating mon-oamine oxidase (MAO), catecholamine (CA) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity in the blood vessel of the guinea pig cochlea. 1. The autonomic innervation on the blood vessel. A moderate activity of MAO and CA was found throughout the course of A cochleae propria up to its second branches. Acetylcholinesterase activity was not demonstrated in the wall of the vessel. The author made a conclusion from a view point of the neurohumoral theory that the adrenergic innervation was more predominant in the cochlear blood vessel than the cholinergic. 2. An effect of the unilateral sympathectomy upon the MAO activity in the blood vessel. No demonstrable change in the enzym activity was observed in the wall of A. cochlea propria three days after operation. However, the activity increa-sed temporarily a week after operation. 3. In vivo effects of MAO inhibitor β-phenyl-isopropylhydrazine hydrochloride on the enzyme activity and pigment granules in the stria vascularis. A marked increase in density of the pigment granule was observed in the upper turn of the cochlea without any inhibition of the MAO activity after an administration of the inhibitor. On the contrary, the density of the pigment decreased from the apical turn downwards with an inhibition of the enzyme after daily administrations of the inhibitor for 14 days. Serotonin injection showed an evident increase of MAO actirsty.
The sound lateralization test in dichotic way is considered to be useful to detect the central lesion from a group of perceptive deafness. Analysis of the central binaural interaction by the following two methods, i.e. centering technique and matching technique, is reported in this paper. In the centering technique, subject is asked to offset an interaural difference in time by a difference of intensity in opposite direction, or vice versa. In the matching technique, the subject is asked to match the lateral position of a sound image pro-duced by interaural intensity difference by means of the other image yielded by interaural time diff-erence. Each pair of tones was presented alterna-tely. Time vs. intensity trade was linear in the ma-tching technique, but it was non-linear in the cent-ering technique. In each band noise such as 300_??_425cps, 600_??_850cps, 1, 200_??_1, 700cps, time vs. intensity ratio in the centering technique was always smaller than that in the matching technique. Among the time vs. intensity ratios, the value of 600_??_850cps band noise was the largest in both centering and matching technique. From the difference between two graphs obta-ined by the two methods, the inhibitory mechanismat the brain stem in physiology of sound lateraliza.tion was suggested. It is well known that the sound localisation is attributed to the interaural time difference and that the time judgement process is carried out in the superior olivary complex. Basing on this concept, the possibility of clinical use of the sound laterali-zation test (just noticeable difference in time and time vs. intensity trade) is mentioned.
A nylon bar, with the head notched to make easy adequete contact with the short process of the malleus, was used for an acoustic probe. The first part of this paper deals with the acoustic properties of the nylon probe in comparison with those of a piano wire probe and a silver wire probe. The following results are obtained : (1) Clinically the most suitable length of the nylon probe was 8cm. (2) The nylon probe proved to be capable of transmitting undistorted wave forms of test pure tones at the intensity level necessary for clinical measurment at the frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000cps. Amplitude of the output through the nylon probe was a linear function of the intensity of input signals. (3) The intensity of the output through the nylon probe was kept almost constant to the test signals of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000cps, when the fixing pressure of the nylon probe was in the range between 0.02gr and ibgr. (4) The nylon probe with a notched head showed the best fixation with the short process of the malleus in a corpse as compaired to the piano and silver wire probes. (5) When auditory threshold was measured at the short process of the malleus in a normal subject by the acoustic probe audiometry, the nylon probe showed more reliable values than the other probes.The second part deals with the clinical appli. cation of the acoustic probe audiometry with this nylon probe. A total of 82 ears with middle ear involvements were measured before surgical treatment. Auditory threshold test was carried out by fixing the notched head of the nylon probe at the short process of the malleus. The following results are obtained: (1) It was concluded that the ossicle hearing loss of less than 21db should be indicative of the existence of the normal ossicular chain, more than 25db indicative of interruption of the ossicular chain, whereas the ossicule hearing loss from 22db to 24db would indicate no definite pathological change in the ossicular chain. (2) Function of the ossicular chain might be represented by the value of auditory threshold measured by the nylone probe at the short process of the malleus, (3) It is not possible by the present test to detect the existence of the slightly interrupted ossicular chain, in which conductive connection was maintained to some degree by granulations. (4) The ossicle hearing loss was elevated with an increase in the degree of stapes fixation, however, very slight stapes fixation shown by slight negativity of Tsunoda's liquid conduction test could not be identified by the nylon probe audiometry.
It has been well known that the hearing acuity of healthy persons become worse with the increasef age (so-called physiological hearing loss by age effect), and recently some workers published the idea that to evaluate the hearing loss due to the acoustic trauma and other etiologies in older pers- ons, this physiological loss must be subtracted from his audiometric loss of hearing. Considering this view hearing acuity was measured on 412 subjects without any subjective difficulty of hearing andny pathological changes of the ear. Subjects were divided into 15 groups of every five year, and the results were statistically discussed. The main results obtained were as follows : 1) On the whole, the hearing acuity decreased gradually with the increase of age. This phenomenon was not noticeable until about 50 years old, but became more distinct over this age. 2) Individual difference of the hearing loss also became larger with the increase of age, especially in groups over 50 years old. Statistical significance calculated by variance ratio was found between the individual differences of nearly all groups over 50 years and that of younger groups. 3) Hearing acuity was impaired mainly in the high frequency region, and the gradual sloping form was predominantly found in the audiogram. Nearly all subjects showed the bilateral symmetrical audiogram in both ears. Femalle group showed a little less loss than the male group. From the results mentioned above, following conclusions were drawn. The changes of the hearing acuity by age manifest itself not only as the increase of the hearing loss but also as the increase of the individual difference among subjects in the same age group. So, in order to evaluate and define the physiological hearing loss by age, it is not fully adequate to take an account of only its mean value of the hearing loss.
In a report on the modified method of venous olfactory test, it was concluded by experimental studies that more accurate latent time could be measured by having the subject make one nasal breath per second. It was also suggested that the latent time of patients with hyposmia was longer than those without any olfactory disturbance. However, in the venous olfactory test with non- diluted Alinamin (Thiamin propyl disulfide), There was no significant difference between slight hypo- smia and normosmia. This reason was presumed that in non-diluted Alinamin, the olfactory gas concentration was in- creased too rapidly. In the various concentrations of Alinamin, the latent time in the modified venous olfactory test was observed. The results were as follows : 1) With the intravenous injection of non dilu- ted Alinamin, there was no significant difference in the latent time between persons with slight hyposmia and with normosmia. 2) The olfactory hypesthesia could be classified by the modified venous olfactory test with the diluted Alinamin. 3) Among the various dilutions of Alinamin, the most adequate dilution available to the venous olfactory test was 0.05mg/ml dilution. The latent time of persons classified five grades by simple nasal olfoctory test with an injection of lml of 0.05mg/ml diluted Alinamin into left cubi- tal vein, was as follows : Normosmia ........... ....... 8.lsec. (mean time) Slight hyposmia......... I3.Osec. ( ") Moderate hyposmia... 17.6sec. ( ") Marked hyposmia .................. not sensible So called anosmia
In 1933, SjÖgren described a syndrome charac- terized by dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), dry mouth (xerostomia), recurrent parotid swellings and polyarthritis. Although many authors have reported patients presenting the same symptoms, a few have reported the cases presenting perfect symptoms. A case, 44 years old woman complaining of dry eyes, dry mouth, general joints pain, recurrent pa. rotid swellings and emaciation is presented. Parotid salivary gland was examined microscopically, and roentgenography and salivary function tests were perfomed.
Part 1: Seven cases of the functional diverticula were reported. This phenomenon is characterised by two to five symmetrical, fairly deep contraction occuring simultaneously in the sub-aortic part of the esoph- agus, and causing a segmentation of the barium column with the occurence of rounded swellings between strictures. Generally this very brief contraction appears at the instant when the esophagus ordinarily prep- ares to resume its normal resting tone, and leaves the esophagus with completly smooth outline after its disappearance. Part 2: Forty cases of the tertiary contraction were reported. This phenomenon is characterised roentgenolo- gically by the serrated outline of the brrium in the esophagus, and appears generally in lower two- third of the esophagus when it is a state of semi- evacuation after the passage of the primary wave. It disappears temporarily with the arrival of the peristaltic wave on affecting part, but after passing it reappears more prominently. This is a very fleeting phenomenon, and its duration varies from one second to twelve seconds. This phenomenon is observed more frequently in older patients than younger ones, and is probably due to nervous condition or to a neuromuscular incoordination of the esophagus.
Though chemotherapeutic agents have greatly improved, antitumor drugs play a minor role compared to irradiation or operation in the treatment of malignant diseases. While producing a specific antitumor effect, these drugs show the toxicity on normal structures. For this reason attempts have been made to minimize the systemic toxicity of antitumor drugs on normal tissues and to obtain the maximum concentration in tumor areas. Based on these ideas. Klopp et al (1950) first introduced the intra-arterial administration of cytotoxic agents' We have managed twenty-two patients of the head and neck tumors, undergoing intra-arterial infusion of cyclo-phosphamide (Endoxan) or chromomycin A3 (Toyomycin). The superficial temporal artery or facial artery was catheterized, by inserting polyethylene tube of appropriate size until the tip of the tube was placed in the external carotid stream.The drug was injected continuously through the catheter. The results obtained show that six patients received significant regression and in twelve the tumor regressed partially. The intra-arterial infusion of Endoxan or To-yomycin may prove to be an important adjunct not only in the management of incurable head and neck tumors, but also as a pre-operative therapy for early stages of cancer.