Innumerable studies have been made on the embryology of the palatine tonsil, but histogenetic study of the interstitial connective tissue, and lymphatic tissue of thepalatine tonsil. The author studied carefully the interstitial connective tissue histogenetically, and the results are as follows: Palatine tonsils in human fetus, appear as the dense mass of mesenchym at the apex of the epit-helial depression on the side wall of the pharynx in the 2nd fetal month and the histologic view of its lymphatic tissue is homogenous and nonsegmented. This histological fact is a considerably different between the palatine tonsils of the human em-bryo and the lymphonoduli aggregati of small intestine, in which lymphatic tissue is made of many lymphonoduli. On the other hand, the argentophile fibrils appear in the part of the depressed epithelium early in the 2nd fetal month. But both the argentophile and the collagenous fibrils are observed in the latter fetal age months and form the dense reticular tissue in the tonsil anlage. The above mentioned collagenous fibrils almost disappar in the 9th fetal month, and are transf-ormed into the argentophile fibrils. Thus, they present the socalled lattice fibres which are typical in the lymphatic tissue.
(1) The fibrinolytic activity has been studied in tissue fractions obtained from mucous membrane affected by maxillary sinusitis and faucial tonsil. (2) The fibrinolytic activity in mucous membrane affected by maxillary sinusitis was observed in its mitochondria, not in its microsome and not in its supernate after supercentrifugation. (3) In faucial tonsil and its tissue fractions there was not fibrinolytic activity and plasminogen activator.
Study on the relation between the type of middle ear pneumatisation and the threshold for air and bone conduction sound was made. It was difficult to estimate the threshold for air and bone cenduction sound by the study of the pneunatisation alone.
Whole culture, filtrate and vaccine of hemolytic Streptococci were injected into the jugular sacs of the guinea pigs, and it was found that the whole culture and filtrate produced a reversible change in the kindneys, especially in the glomeruli. From the results of this experiments, the following conclusions were made: 1. The glomerulonephritis which complicates hemolytic streptococal angina is assumed to be the results of overstimulation of the autonomic nerve of the pharynx. 2. As far as the histological findings of the experimentally produced renal lesions are concerned, no difference was observed between those caused by the so-called nephritogenic strains and those due to non-nephritogenic strains. 3. The result of these experiments in which reversible renal lesions were produced will contribute to the elucidation of the etiology of human nephritis.
Profiting of Flame-Photometer, rise and fall of sodium and potasium in labyrinthine fluids of guinea pig in various situation were investigated. Regulatig investigative method of nonorganic substances, accuracy of measurement was expected. In normal guinea pig, sodium in perilymph was more than in endolymph, concretely about 1.3 times as much, the other side, potasium in endolymph was more than in perilymph, concretely about 4.5 times as much. Measuring sodium and potasium, secretion mechanism of perilymph was pursued. Making, use of streptomycin or cortisone, variation of sodium and potasium in peri-endolymph were recognized.
The symmetrical appearance of audiograms of the both ears was often experienced in the hearing test and it has been considered that it might be caused by the local constitution of the ear. The author had observed the relationship between this symmetrical appearance of audiograms and the pn. of the middle ear which was considered as a indication of the local constitution of the ear. The author observed audiograms of 1672 deafened and the pneumatization of 612 cases with Schu-ller's method. As a result, it could be concluded as follows: In the cases of conductive deafness, it was confi-rmed that symmetrical audiograms in both ears indicate the similarity of the pneumatization in the both ears, but not in the cases of perceptive deafness. Therfore the middle ear pn. might indicate the local constitution only of the conductive organ, but not that of perceptive organ.
The experimental studies to be presented in this paper were performed with a purpose of ob-taining some informations about the relationship between Reilly's phenomena and morphological changes of the peripheral autonomic nerve cells under the observation with the electron-microscope. First. of all, the detail of the structure of the superior cervical ganglion cells of the guinea pig was studied and then changes in the structure of these cells were studied in two groups of animals. The first group contisted of those animals to which a minute amount of croton oil was injected be-neath the mucous membrane of the lips and palate to bring the animal into a condition of shock. The animals of the second group were injected repeatedly with diluted croton oil and kept alive for twenty days. In the superior cevical ganglion cells of the normal guinea pig, the endoplasmic reticulum which are visualized in the masses representing the Nissl's bodies are almost flat and arranged in a regular parallel fashion. Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, neurofilaments, axonfibrils and infoldings of the cell membrane can also be visualized. Each nerve cell is surrounded by several capsular cells and each capsular cell is clearly delineated. Nucleoli were observed to consist not only of granular masses connecting nucleolonema but also of groups of fine granules which are present more abundantly around the area next to the nuclear membrane. Some interesting informations were also obtained of the structure of nucleoli and of nuclear membrane. It is well documented in the observations with the conventional microscope that various stressful conditions induce chromatolysis. With the aid of the electron microscope, it was observed that in the animals of the second group, the chromatolysis is manifested as spreading, decrease in number or disappearance of the endoplasmic reticulum, and is accompanied by convoluting of nuclei as well as various morphological changes of the nucleoli, whereas in the animals of the first group, no diffe-rence from the nomal morphology was observed. On the other hand, the histological picture of the tissue of the liver and kidney was the same in these two groups. This result seems to indicate the participation of the superior cervical ganglion in the mecha-nism of maintaining homeostasis within the organism. The paucity of morphological changes in the ganglion cells of animals of the first group seems to indicate the condition before any morphological changes visible with the electron microscope could have taken place, and that under the conditions to which these animals were exposed, the stress affected the entire body so violently and rapidly that the ganglion cells had no time to show their reactions in their full extent before its fatal effect became manifested.
1) In guinea pig, the lip was irritated with repeated injection of croton oil for various length, of time, and the changes produced in the lip, superior cervical and caeliac sympathetic ganglia, and various organs were investigated histopathologically, 2) In the first group of animals to which croton oil was injected for a short period of time, . only edema of the lip was observed, whereas in the second group to which injection was repeated for longer period, necrosis and/or cicatrix formation were remarkable. 3) The sympathetic ganglia showed little change in the animals of the first group, while in the, second group they showed degenerative changes mainly consisting of atrophy and swelling of the cells, . vacuolization or destruction of the cytoplasma, chromatolysis, swelling, atrophy, deformation and dest-ruction of nuclei. The longer the lip was exposed to the irritation the higher was the degree of the changes. Changes in the superior cervical and caeliac sympathetic ganglia were similar to each. other. 4) In various organs changes due to circulatory disturbance such as congestion and hemorrhage as-well as various degenerative changes were observed. These changes were more pronounced in group I.. 5) On the basis of these findings, the author explained the shock symptoms produced by irri-tation of the lip as a manifestation of Reilly's phenomena, and offered a postulation that the irritation to the lip was transmitted to the autonomic nervous system of the entire body through the superior cervical ganglion working as one of the mediators of the stimulus transmission. 6) Further more, the cause of novocain shock was discussed clinically from the viewpoint of Reilly's theory.
Part I Blood vessels in nasal mucous membrane of human fetus Anatomical and histological studies of the distribution and anastomoses of blood vessels in nasal mucous membrane of Japanese human fetus were made. 1) There were anastomoses between internal and external carotid arteries at the vestibular portion of nasal septum and the edge of inferior turbinate. 2) Development of blood vessels and epithelium were seen in about the same stage of the fetal development, followed by the development of interstitial fibers. 3) Positive PAS stain of blood vessels decreased in its incidence in the late stage of the fetal development. 4) Basement membrane in the nasal mucous membrane was demonstrated by PAS stain in early stage of the fetal development. Blood vessels appeared at first in the areas which showed remarkable positive PAS stain. 5) Lysis of interstitial fibers at the time of nasal bleeding was conceived. Part II Special vascular structure in nasal cavity Histological study of the special vascular structure of the nasal mucous membrane in the area where the bleeding is easily encountered, was made. 1) Intraepithelial blood vessels were observed in the vestibule of the nose in adults, forming loops pointing various direction. There were demonstrated through the mucous membrane with Benzidine stain. 2) Glomus was observed in vestibular portion of the nasal septum and also in the mucous membrane of inferior turbinate. Complete picture of the glomus was demonstrated using Benzidine stain. 3) Probable anlage of glomus was observed in a 10 months old fetus, in the deeper layer of septal mucous membrane. 4) It was found that there were two different kinds of nasal bleeding, i.e. superficial minor and deep major hemorrhage. 5) By the Benzidine stain of the inner surface of maxillary sinus, it was found that bleeding during maxillary sinus surgery was due to the rupture of the emissary vessels.
Lately, the patients the with allergic diseases such as the asthma, sinusitis, rhinitis, eczema, phlyctena and etc. have been increasing in number. The cause of fits of the asthma is different in each case: Accordingly several kinds of allergen, which is considered its cause, are reported by many scholars; e. g. of food, of medicine and etc. besides of heredity Moreover some causes of fits of the asthma are considered due to the diathesis of patients. Therofore, the patients of the asthma undergo several different treatments: nevertheless there has not yet been a specific treatment, and some of the patients are still suffering uncured. I myself suffered from the said disease, and tried many kinds of treatment, which all proved to be ineffective. I have got to know of the ion gas injection by chance, and I successfully applied it to my own disease: and then I applied it to the other patients, the results of which are stated hereunder: 1. Coonsideration. Men feel pleasant when the weather is fine, or especially after thundering: in a bad weather they feel unpleasant. It is supposed that these phenomena are due to an increased quantity of ozon con-tained in the air. The asthmatic patients often have fits in a bad weather, or in the evening. The reason is I believe, that there exists more ozon in the air when it is fine; and the bad air contains less ozon. The artificial ozon can be made by the ozonizer 2. Experiment The ozon, namely ion gas, used in injection was generated by Nagano's medical ozonizer. Twenty serious cases of the asthma were selected. Five to ten c. c. of ion gas was injected, irrespective of the age the paticnts; and the total amount 10-30c.c. on the patients of 10-30 years of age: the total amount of 30-70cc was injected on the patients of 30-70 years of age. The sites subcutaneous injection. (1) At the back of the neck, (2) On the both shoulders, (3) At the front of the neck, (4) At the back of the heart, (5) Below axilla. The patients, immediately after the injection, showed abnormal symptoms, while the healty people did not show any symptoms. When the gas injected on the healthy persons, it spreaded all over, while in the case of paticnts, the gas remained in a lump sum around of injection, showing emphysema. The placcs, where the abnormal symptoms appeared, were limited only to the area around the vagus nerve. After the injection continued for some time, the abnormal symptoms disappeared and the pa-tients were cured. 3. Conlusion. I, therefore, consider that the vagus nerve is affected by the injection of ion gas. Each patient has a different kind of allergen. By the injection of the ion gas the asthmatic patients can be cured. I consider, therfore, that allergen must be positive ion or something which contains positive ion.
The author studied on the uncomfortable loudness level (ULL) of the normal and conductive or sensory deafness ears. The results are as follows: The ULL of the normal ear is about 75db. That of the deafened ear is closely related with the loudness growth, but also influenced by the mechanism of sensory nerves in the external aucitory canal and the middle ear, or psychologic factors. However, these two latter factors have not so st-rong influence that they change the essence of the ULL. The ULL of the ear with sensory deafness agrees with the recruitment phenomenon, and therefore. the ULL can be used to a certain degree for the differential diagnosis of deafness. When the ULL is above 85-95db by sensation level, and the difference between the ULL and the minimum threshold of audibility (the autllor called "comfortable area") is above 50-60db, the-deafness is mostly conductive deafness, and when the level or area is below those values sensory deafness is suspected.
Pneumatization of the temporal bone is developed by apposition and resorption of the bone. These two processes are most remarkable in the last stage of the fetal life and postnataly these pro-cesses gradually decrease until adolescence. After adolescence these processes reach to their minimum activity, so that the, bone structure keep its status. As the age advances, only absorbing activity becomes active and in the temporal bone of the aged person very significant resorption of the bone walls of the air cells was found. This process results in well-developed air cells, which coresponds to osteoporosis in the general bone tissues. But in the temporal bone the resorption process in the preadolescence and postadolescence period is not same. The resorption in the fomer is lacunar and the giant cells were found in the area where bone resorption is suspected, but in the latter there were found now formation of the capillary blood vessels and connective tissues in stead of the giant cells. These appearances of the temporal bones in the old-aged may be reconized as the characteristics of the temoral bone. In the other bones apposition of the bone tissue is active in the preadolescence period as that of the temporal bone, but the absorption is not so remarkable. It is beyond doubt that in the postnatal life resorption process in these bones is present, because the osteoporotic appearance is found in them, namely wide marrow spaces and dilated Haver's canal, but the giant cells or other findings related to resorption could not be demonstrated. From the comparison of the structure of the temporal bone with that of the other bones, the author has concluded that the well-developed temporal bones appear in the cases with the thin lamellae and the wide marrow spaces in the parietal bone and femur, and that the temporal bones with under-developed pneumatization appear in the cases with thick lamellae and narrow marrow spaces in the parietal bone and femur.
A case of removing a bronchial foreigh body was presented. The patient was a thirty nine aged female who had suffurred during thirteen months from a fragment of tracheal canule incarcerated in the left descending bronchus. The foreign body could be located by the bronchograph as well as a high voltage roentgenograph, and removed successfully. No significant signs of lung emphysema or atelectasis were recognized, the reason being ascri-bed to the fragment of canule permitting the air to pass through.