Immunological studies were performed on guinea pigs which were experimentally infected with group A or group C streptococci. The following results were obtained. 1. Group C streptococcus was less pathogenetic than group A streptococcus. 2. Immunoglobulin, especially IgG I, was markedly increased in both group A and group C streptococcal infection. 3. The ASLO titers were mesured more sensitively in group C streptococcal infection than in group A streptococcal infection by Latex ASL but more sensitively in group A streptoccocal infection than in group C streptococcal infection by Blue ASO. 4. In both group A and C streptococcal infection, the cell wall agglutination titers increased in late stage of inflammation. 5. The precipitating antibodies to SK-SD apeared even in early stage in group C strepto- coccal infection but in group A streptoccoccal infection, it appeared in late stage. By immuno- electrophoresis of SK-SD, it was found that the numbers of precipitin band were 1 to 2 in group A streptococcal infection and 3 in group C streptococcal infection. 6. One of these three precipitin bands which was characteristic in group C streptococcal infection, was situated from a1, globulin to albumin immunoelectrophoretically and was antibody to Fr. III of SK-SD. 7. It was shown that active component of delayed hypersensitivity to SK-SD found in Fr. II* in group A streptococcal infection, while it was found in Fr. III in group C streptococcal infection.
Various methods are employed to assess the patency of the nasal cavities. Nasal resistance is evaluated by simultaneous measurements of the air flow and the pressure difference between the nostrils and pharynx. These values are transformed into the electrical signals by transducers, amplified and recorded. However, we are often annoyed with problems arising during and after the measurement, such as a loop formation of the pressure-flow curve. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the exact function of the apparatus including the transducers and to clarify the limitation in analyzing the recorded data. Two solenoid valves were connected in parallel using Y tube to the constant negative pres-sure source. Rectangular waves were led through the solenoid valves which were alternatively opened by a manual switch. Sinusoidal waves were produced by a respirator (Harvard Ap-paratus) equipped with phototransistor signals at zero flow point. Four transducers and one hot wire flowmeter were checked by the above mentioned airflow system. Diameter and length of the conduit pipes to the transducers were also varied. The mean values of the stabilizing time, rise time and overshoot were calculated from the curves recorded 10 times in each ex-perimental condition when the rectangular waves were measured. The time lags were determined comparing the recorded curve with the phototransistor signal when the sinusoidal waves were measured. Curves of the flow measurement recorded by a penumotachometer and the transducers prominently lagged behind the actual rectangular phenomena. The time lag of the hot wire flowmeter was much smaller, but significant time lapse was also needed for stabilization. The time lag of the pressure transducer was shorter as compared with the flow transducers, but overshoots were noted especially in cases of long and thick conduit pipes. Stabilizing and rise times were voluntarily elongated by narrowing the pipes. The loop formation of the pressure-flow curves on an oscilloscope is at least in part attributed to the phase difference of the measur-ing system, since it is apparent from our observations that the flow signal considerably lags behind the pressure signal. It is required for the experimenter to have a good knowledge on the function and efficiency of transducers, use them exactly according to the description, and analyze the data within the limitation of their function.
Multiple sclerosis is rarely reported in Japan The incidence of the disease in Japan is said to be about 2% of that in Europe and North America. The disease, therefore, has not been so much evaluated neuro-otologically in Japan. The patient was 22-year-old female, complaining of vertigo, hearing disturbance of the left ear and hypesthesia of the upper and the lower extremities. The examinations revealed slight left ear hearing loss in pure tone audiometry, marked positive TTS in Békésy audiometry of the left ear, horizontal gaze nystagmus to the bilateral directions, direction fixed positional nystagmus to the left, and DP to the left in caloric test. Optokinetic nystagmus and eye-tracking tests were normal. These neuro-otological findings gradually disappeared in about 5 months except hypesthesia of the lower extremity which remains at present
A review was made of clinical aspects of osteogenic sarcoma, particularly of chondrosarcoma induced by external irradiation and an additional case was reported. A 14-year-old female developed chondrosarcoma in the mandible 4 and a half years after deep X-ray therapy for malignant lymphoma of the maxilla. Discussions were made on the nature of chondrosarcoma in the facial region, ubiqutious tumor of osseous orgin, and on the role of irradiation in the development of malignant tumor of the bone.
The effect of opening of the eyes and of ocular fixation upon caloric nystagmus has been routinely tested in our neurotological assessment of patients since 1974. All cases who showed a sign of FFS (Failure of Fixation-Suppression of Caloric Nystagmus) were found to have central nervous 'system '.lesions, especially posterior fossa lesions. From an analysis of caloric nystagmus with the sign of FFS, patterns of FFS were classified into the following three types. Type I Visual fixation failed to suppress caloric nystagmus to both directions. In this type, diffuse involvement of the central nervous system such as cerebellar degeneration, organic mercurials intoxication and myoclonus epilepsy was included. Type II : Visual suppression of caloric nystagmus could not be observed on either side regard-less of water temperature applied as caloric' stimuli. In this type, cerebellopontine angle syndrome such as acoustic tumor, meningioma, epidermoid and arachnoiditis was included. Type III: Visual fixation failed to suppress caloric nystagmus to either direction depending upon caloric stimuli. In this type, vascular disorder, head trauma and unilaterally located tumor of the cerebellar hemisphere were included. On the basis of our clinical data classified above, underlying neuroanatomical mechanism was discussed.
A research on otogenic intracranial complications has been carried out using questionnaire cards over a period from 1971 to June in 1976. The institutions included in the research were a total of 803 otorhinolaryngological departments selected from university hospitals, and national, public, or private hospitals. The results are given below: 1. An increasing tendency has been observed in the incidence of otogenic intracranial com- plications since 1973. 2. A higher incidence in males was noted as compared with females in a ratio of 2:1. 3. In many of the cases, complications developed during the period of treatment at medic-al facilities. 4. The most frequent causative diseases for the otogenic intracranial complications were chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, followed by chronic suppurative otitis media. There encountered only a few cases in which the complication appeared secondarily to acute otitis media. 5. As causative organisms, staphylococcus and Gram-negative bacillus including proteus vulgaris and pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated predominantly. 6. The prognosis was proven to be highly favourable except for cases of brain abscess.