日本耳鼻咽喉科学会会報
Online ISSN : 1883-0854
Print ISSN : 0030-6622
ISSN-L : 0030-6622
79 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
  • 高山 哲, 斎藤 洋三, 長谷 川誠, 渡辺 建介
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 417-424
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to investigate the seasonal variations of serum reaginic activities in Japanese cedar pollinosis, serum IgE concentrations by the radioimmunosorbent test and cedar specific IgE antibody levels of eighteen cedar allergic patients were measured monthly by the radioallergosorbent test(March, April. May, June and July, 1973). As the number of atmospheric cedar pollen grains increased, serum IgE began to elevate and continued to raise during the cedar pollination season.It reached the maximum concentrations about two months after the end of the pollination season, then it decreased gradually and became minimum just before the next pollination season. The ratio of the maximum IgE concentration to the minimum was 3.25 fold in the mean of total 18 cases. Concerning variation patterns of serum IgE ten cases showed a monophasic pattern, eight cases a two-phasic.
    Along the beginning of the cedar pollination season serum cedar specific IgE antibody levels set in acending and lasted during the season.
    It attained to the peak levels at the end of the season or about a month after the season.After the peak elevations it discended gradually and dropped to the lowest levels just before the next pollination season. The ratio of the peak value of IgE antibodies to the lowest was 1.9 fold in the mean of total 18 cases. In regard to variation patients 13 cases revealed a monophasic pattern, 5 cases a two-phasic.
    The seasonal changes of serum IgE concentrations and serum cedar specific IgE antibody levels are considered to depend on the fluctuations of the airborne cedar pollens (antigenic stimuli)
  • 海野 徳二
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 425-434
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Sinobronchitis is the term which means a combined condition of both chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The real meaning of the word, however, has been understood as a syndrome resulted from chronic diseases of the upper and lower airways. Etiology, symptomatology and epidemiology of the disease have minutely been studied by many investigators. A recent report which described a high prevalence of chronic sinusitis in patients with panbronchiolitis implied close relationships between small airway obstruction and sinusitis. The present investigation was intended from the viewpoint of respiratory physiology of the small airways and aerodynamics of coughing.
    The flow rate was measured by a hot wire flow meter. Actually expired air was measured by a Krogh spirometer. Volume change of a subject was measured by a body plethysmograph.These three variables were simultaneously recorded on a photocorder. Maximum expirations and voluntary coughs were repeated 3 times respectively on 20 male patients with chronic sinusitis aged 16 to 40. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), maximum midexpiratory flow (MMF), maximum flows on the FV curve at 75%, 50% and 25% of the vital capacity (V75, V50, V25), their corrected values by body height (V75/Ht, V50/Ht, V25/Ht) and MMF in coughing were calculated from the recorded data. The variables were widely scattered but the most impressive tendency was the decrease of V25/Ht in these patients.
    Low velocities in coughing, characterized by low MMF in coughing, are correlated with decreased V25/Ht. This is explained from the following facts. Firstly, coughing air is usually expired under two-thirds of the vital capacity. Secondly, the FV curve of coughing can well be superimposed on that of maximum expiration at their descending limbs except a temporary excess of the former at the beginning of the expiratory phase.
    Decreased V5o or V25 in patients with chronic sinusitis suggests that some changes occur in the small airways. These changes might be functional or organic. The mechanism of these changes is beyond the present paper. It should further be studied from various aspects such as infection, allergy, predisposition, naso-pulmonary reflex, aging, smoking and air pollution. Low expiratory velocities in coughing due to changes in small airways surely impair the efficiency of cough. Insufficiency of coughing accumulates the secretions in the airways. This may deteriorate changes in the small airways or elongate chronic inflammation, and thus result in an increase in the bronchial secretions.
    These observations suggest that chronic obstructive changes of the respiratory system in such ways progressively develope from latent into manifest conditions in patients with chronic sinusitis
  • 三橋 重信, 岡田 正直, 平野 実
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 435-438
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the blood vessel distribution in the vocal cord, especially from the functional point of view as a vibrator.
    After the contrast medium was infused through bilateral common carotid artery, the larynx was excised and fixed. The softex contact microradiography was performed on the specimens which were cut out in sagittal, horizontal and frontal plane. The observations were mainly focused upon the free edge of the vocal cord. The microradiograms gave the following results:
    (1) The canine larynx is supplied by three major arteries, that is, superior laryngeal artery, cricothyroid branch and inferior laryngeal artery. The latter two are branched from superior thyroid artery.
    (2) The peripheral branches of these arteries anastomose each other in the larynx and make arterial networks here and there. Especially, on the level of the false cord and the vocal cord, the arterial networks appear to be arterial rings.
    (3) It should be emphasized that there is a clear-cut separation of the blood supply between the mucous membrane and the muscle layer near the free edge of the vocal cord. In other word, the vessels of the mucous membrane run backward from the anterior commissure forward from the posterior part of the vocal cord, and little vessels come in the mucosa from the underlying muscle.The direction of the vessels is almost parallel to the edge of the vocal cord. On the other hand, the vessels of the muscle layer chiefly run almost vertical to the edge of the vocal cord. Since the mucosa near the edge of the vocal cord moves most significantly during the vibration, the pattern of the distribution and direction of the blood vessels described above appears to be suitable for high frequency vibrations
  • 今野 昭義
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 439-449
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The change in blood flow of the nasal mucosa in dogs produced by electrical stimulation of the efferent nerve innervating the nasal vasculature was studied quantitatively using thermoconductivity measurement method described by Hensel and Hagihara.
    The present study confirmed the recent findings of Jackson et al. studied by nasal permeability measurement.
    The effect of electrical stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve on the nasal blood flow was markedly diminished by section of the posterior nasal nerve or the etbmoid nerve.
    After section of both the posterior nasal nerve and the ethmoid nerve, cervical sympathetic stimulation gave no effect on the nasal blood flow.
    Section of the Vidian nerve gave no influence on stimulatory effect of the cervical sympatheticnerve.
    Electrical stimulation of the surrounding tissue of the maxillary artery gave no effect on the nasal blood flow.
    Stimulation of the Vidian nerve caused increase of the nasal blood flow with abundant nasal section.
    From above findings the parasympathetic fibers to the nasal mucosa is assumed to run in the Vidian nerve, but the sympathetic fibers in the dog to run with posterior nasal nerve and the ethmoid nerve.
    Swelling of the nasal mucosa with parasympathetic stimulation was accompanied by an increase in the nasal blood flow.
    But shrinkage of nasal mucosa produced by sympathetic stimulation was accompanied by a transient small increase of blood flow which was followed by a marked decrease in flow.
    This phase of increased blood flow was particularly apparent when weak sympathetic stimulation was applied.
    Whether this increase of the nasal blood flow produced by weak sympathetic stimulation was due to stimulation of sympathetic vasodilator fibers as was described by Blier or not was not confirmed in this experiment
  • 斎藤 等, 中村 昭郎
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 450-458
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Acid mucopolysaccharides (acidic glycosaminoglycans) in the ground substance of the connective tissue are acting as an ion-exchanger to bring nutrients from the blood to cell and to carry metabolites in the opposite direction by their acidity. Chronic pathological change in the paransaal sinus such as sinusitis may affect the amount and characteristics of acid mucopolysaccharides, and acid mucopolysaccharides were analysed by a new micromethod.
    The tissues analysed were the maxillary sinus mucosa of normal, three types of chronic maxillary sinus (edematous, suppurative and fibrous), nasal polyp and maxillary cancer. The acid mucopoly-saccharides extracted from the tissues were subjected to electrophoresis on cellulose acetate strips in 0. 2M calcium acetate, imA/cm for 4 hours. After electrophoresis, the strip was stained by dipping in 0.5% alcian blue in 3% acetic acid for 20 min, rinsed with water for 10 min and dried. The strip was cleared with decaline, then subjected to densitometry at 600 nm and the area under the curves was measured. A linear relationship between the amount of polysaccharide and the area under the curve of densitometer tracing was obtained for chondroitin sulfate A, B, C and hyaluronic acid in the concentration range of 0. 1 to 1.0 μg with an error of approximately 8%.
    The kinds of acid mucopolysaccharides detected by electrophoretogram and enzymic digestion were hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate A and B in the all tissues examined. The largest component of them was hyaluronic acid, which was about twice as much of the normal content in chronic sinusitis except fibrous type, nasal polyp and maxillary cancer. Chondroitin sulfate A showed most conspicuous increase from 5 times to 7 times as much of the normal content. On the other hand, chondroitin sulfate B was rather stable, showing slight increase in the edematous type of chronic sinusitis and slight decrease in maxillary cancer.
    The total amount of acid mucopolysaccharides per dry weight was 0.24±0.05% (mean±standard error, n=4) in the normal maxillary sinus mucosa, 0.49±0.07% (n=4) in the edematous type of chronic maxillary sinusitis, 0. 49±0. 12% (n=4) in the suppurative type of chronic maxillary sinusitis, 0.38±0.06% (n=4) in the fibrous type of chronic maxillary sinusitis, 0.50±0.05%(n=8) in nasal polyp and 0.38±0.08% (n=7) in maxillary cancer, respectively
  • 下山 高生
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 459-477
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Experiments were performed on the discrimination of interaural time for lateralization images on the midline, using filtered 10 microsec. duration pulse with repetition rate 100 PPS as stimulus sound. Employing simplified AB method, interaural time DLs (ITDL) were investigated as a function of sensation level of stimuli, cut-off frequency of presentation filter (hi-pass, low-pass, and band pass), and aging of subjects.
    1) ITDLs in 0. 7 and 2 kHz (fo) half octave bands decreased rapidly until the stimulus level reached to 40 dB SL, beyond which they were approximately constant.
    2) When half octave band filters were used at 50 dB SL presentation level, ITDLs gave approximately same value in 0. 5, 0. 7 and 1 kHz bands, but they rapidly increased in 2 and 4. 6kHz bands.
    Employing wider frequency band filtering, ranging from 1/2 to 3 1/2 octaves, every of which contained 0.7 kHz 1/2 octave band, it was found that cutting off higher frequency rather than lower frequency seemed to improve ITDL. ITDL curves cut-off frequency of high pass and low pass filters crossed at around 800 Hz.
    These findings suggest that the frequency range of 0.7 kHz in terms of 1/2 octave band plays an important role in sound lateralization.
    3) ITDLs in 0.7 kHz 1/2 octave band at 50 dB SL were measgred in 54 subjects including every decade of age. Average ITDL increased with advance of age, being the smallest ITDL(28 microsec.) in twenties and the largest in sixties or more
  • 金井 清次
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 478-490
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    人間は言葉によつて多くの情報を交換し,今日の文明を築いてきた.この言葉を発するということは,簡単なことに思えるが,表現したい情報の概念を形成し,それを言語中枢で言語学的構成に変化させ,末梢構音器官を作動させて発語するのであるから非常に複雑である.その表出言語は幾つかの要棄を持つている.すなわち,表現したい情報内容は勿論のこと,一つ一つの語音の特徴,それらが配列される様式,発声される語音の抑揚,リズム,速度,さらには声の高さ,強さ,音質などがそれである.さらに表出された情報内容や音響学的音声言語は,発語者の聴覚系を通じて発声発語する諸機構にフィードバックされ,そしてコントロールされているので,表出言語は単に言語系のみの機能が関与して構成されるものではない.
    このように複雑な機構により言語が表出されるのであるから,これらの機構の中で,どこが障害されても雷語障害となりうる.
    著者は脳卒中にともなつた言語障害例を多く診る機会をえたが,これらの言語障害例は,失語症と麻痺性構音障害に大別される.しかしこれら障害例は老人が多く,聴覚障害,老人性痴呆が加わつている場合も多いそのため脳卒中後の言語障害の治療には多くの困難な問題がある.そこで著者は脳卒中後の麻痺性構音障害について種々検討し,言語療法についても考案したので,その結果を報告する.
  • 野村 侃
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 491-499
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The author made the morphological study on the chromatolysis of the facial nerve nuclear cells after the nerve was sectioned.
    Thirty healthy male rabbits were used. "A" group was left after cutting the facial nerve. In"B" group, the nerve was jointed immediately by bonding agent after the nerve amputation. Each group was devided into 5 sub-groups of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days after operation. The morphological examinations were made on the nerve nuclear cells, especially on their Nissl's bodies, by light microscope. As a control, the normal facial nerve nucleus was checked. The chromatolysis observed was classified into following 4 stages:
    T0: No change was observed.
    T1: Reduction in number of Nissl's bodies. Nissl's bodies with irregular or vague contour.
    T2: Partial destruction of Nissl's bodies.
    T3: Total destruction of Nissl's bodies.
    All animals in control group belonged. In "A" group, all animals showed the chromatolysis.In 3, 5 and 7 days after surgery, the degree of the chromatolysis was intensified as the time elapsed. The maximum change was recorded on 7th day. It was reduced in 10th and 14th days gradually. Among 4 stage, T3 was the highest in number to 10th, but in 14th day T2 was more frequency found than T3. In "B" group, the chromatolysis also appeared in all sub-groups. Its condition was intensified in 3rd and 5th day, but reduced in 7th day. The reducing tendency was further progressed in 10th and 14th day. T3 was the largest in number in 3rd and 5tn day, but in 7th and 10th day T2 appeared most frequently, and on 14th day T1 was the largest in number.
    The results were summarized as follows:
    1) In both "A" andB" groups, the chromatolysis appeared remarkably after the operation, though its extent and progress were different. Then, the tendency of recovery was obserbed.
    2) Compared with A group, the progress of chromatolysis in B group was a little delayed, but the tendency of recovery was fo und earlier in B than in A group, that is, from 7th day in B and from 10th day in A group. The maximum value was lower in B group than A group cases.
    The present experiment appears to support the opinion that the nerve reconstruction should be conducted as soon as possible when the facial nerves are injured
  • 酒井 俊一
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 500-506
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 大櫛 弘篤, 三上 喜久, 栄 春海
    1976 年 79 巻 4 号 p. 535-538
    発行日: 1976/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
feedback
Top