The effect of nitrogen mustard-N-oxide (Nitromin®) upon the click evoked N1 latency was examined in 14 albino guinea pigs. Various dosage of NitrominR ranged from 5 to 30mg/kg were given intravenously and the cochlear potentials were recorded 3 to 7 days after the administration. The animals were histologically examined with a surface preparation technique after the measurements. In all animals except one, the thresholds of AP to the filtered tone burst were elevated especially in high frequency range. In addition to the amplitude reduction, the N1 latency evoked by a click was prolonged in 12 animals. Narrow-band analysis of the N1 revealed that the latency was equally prolonged in all frequencies, although the amount of the amplitude reduction was much larger in high frequency. The histological examination exhibited the various degrees of the outer hair cell damage and the results obtained in electrophysiological studies were correlated with these findings. It was concluded that the prolongation of the N1 latency in Nitromin® treated animals was due to the dysfunction of outer hair cells along the entire cochlear partition.
It is generally admitted that the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rather poor. This poor prognosis seems to depend on the three factors. The first is the difficulty in the early detection because the symptoms are latent. The second is the pathohistological specificity of the lesion. The third is the most important and as follows. NPC cases fall into the systemic failure of the immunosurveillance. The immuno-responsiveness is markedly depressed. In the previous reports, these have been investigated with the examinations of skin test and lymphocyte blastogenesis. In the present report, NPC cases are divided into two groups of tumor bearing and remission. And the subsets of peripheral blood lymphocyte were examined with the monoclonal antibody, OKT and Leu series. In addition, the cellular immunity of both groups was tested with NK activity and lymphocyte blastogenic response. The results are as follows; 1) The decrease of T cell number was recognized in the tumor bearing group. 2) The number of inducer/helper T cell declined in both groups. 3) The number of suppressor T cell increased in both groups. 4) NK activity and blastogenic responsiveness decreased in both groups. These results show that immunosurveillance system collapses in NPC cases and the immunologically depressed condition continues, even after the treatment. Immunologically considered, NPC is not a regional and limited disease but a systemic disease. The immunotherapy is indispensable for the proper treatment of NPC.
The cytology of laryngeal diseases including 25 cases of laryngeal carcinoma, 15 cases of vocal cord polyp, 8 cases of chronic laryngitis and 2 cases of laryngeal leukoplakia were studied. The results were as follows; 1. The over all correct diagnostic rate in this series of patients was 77.6%. 2. The accuracy of cytological diagnosis in laryngeal carcinomas was 76.0% and the false negative rate was 24.0%. 3. All benign laryngeal diseases were proved cytologically benign and the false positive was none. 4. The laryngeal cytology under direct laryngoscopy were superior to the cytology under indirect laryngoscopy. 5. The false negative diagnosis were derived by the paucity of malignant cells and epithelial cells in the specimen. 6. The exfolliative cytology was proved to be a usefll method for the diagnosis of laryngeal diseases. 7. The accuracy of laryngeal cytology should be improved with the use of direct laryngoscopy, especially with fiberlaryngoscopy.
Surgical and radiographic anatomy of the ethmoidomaxillary plate was performed using sets films obtained by Caldwell view and Polytomography. Frontal sections of 3 and 4cm from Nasion were analyzed in order to define the dimensions of the ethmoidomaxillary plate in the facial bone. Eighty males and sixty eight females were included in the study and the results were analyzed according to the side and gender. Indicators showing the dimentions of the ethmoidomaxillary plate are, length, angle between the midsagittal plane, distance to the mid-sagittal plane, distance to the ethmoid tegmen, facial breadth and breadth of maxillary sinus. Average values obtained from the total of 148 cases are, length 12mm, distance to the mid sagittal plane (upper edge 26mm, lower edge 18mm), distance to the ethmoid tegmen (upper edge 17mm, lower edge 25mm), Linear correlations among various indicators were calculated and highest correlation was seen between the length and the distance of the lower edge to the midsaggital plane. General configuration of the ethmoidomaxillary plate was classified by the frontal section of 3cm from Nasion. The results are as follows: smooth linear type 62%, concave either to maxillary sinus or to the ethmoido cells 33%, and irregular type 5%, respectively. The angle of the ethmoidomaxillary plate to the anthropological plane was also calculated and the results are as follows: the medial angle 4.6° and lateral angle 14.6°.
In order to clarify the relationships between the vestibulo-ocular reflex and gaze stabilization, the ratios of eye velocity to head velocity (gains) obtained under the alert-in-dark condition, target-fixed-in-space condition, and head-fixed target condition were compared among normal adults, normal children, patients with cerebellar lesions, patients with unilateral loss of labyrinthine function and patients with bilateral loss of labyrinthine function. The following results were obtained. 1. Spatial gaze fixation, executed by either right or left VOR arc according to the direction of head rotation, is impaired by a pathological decline of the VOR gain which cannot be compensated for by the recalibration of the VOR in the light. Cerebellar dysfunction does not profoundly affect spatial gaze fixation. 2. Fixation-induced suppression of the VOR depends on the smooth pursuit function, with immaturity (children) or hypofunction (cerebellar lesions) increasing the VOR gain in the dark. The function is not affected by a decrease of the VOR gain in peripheral labyrinthine lesions. 3. The ability of fixation-induced suppression of the VOR seems to have developed as an antagonist to the spatial gaze fixation to gaze at a spatially moving target. Although these functions work independently of each other, feedforward regulation by the efference copy of head velocity is common in both the mechanisms. 4. VOR in the dark is controlled not only by the recalibrating mechanism of the gain to obtain spatial gaze fixation, but also by the perceptual control mechanism to gaze at a spatially moving target.
Many morphological studies of human nasal mucosa using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been reported. However, most of the reported application of SEM are limitted to secondary electron image. It is impossible to recognize histochemical components of cells and tissues using only secondary electron image of SEM. In this study, for the purpose of observing three-dimensional localization of histocytochemical components of cells and tissues, human nasal mucosa was examined with colored SEM using color displaying of secondary electron image and back-scattered electron image after staining of acid phosphatase or acid glycoconjugate. Gomori's stain containing lead permitted recognition of acid phosphatase-positive granules in back-scattered secretory cell of nasal gland with colored electron microscopy. Some secretory granules that have the similar ultrastrucure to lysosome in the secondary electron image were clearly distingushed from lysosome in the colored image. Acid glycoconjugate stained with ruthenium red was seen with good contrast and resolution in colored image. Three-dimensional localization of acid glycoconjugate was observed in glycocalyx on the surface of ciliated epithelium, secretory granules and Golgi complex of goblet cells and secretory granules of nasal glands. It is surmised that ruthenium red staining is extremely useful for observing three-dimensional localization of acid glycoconjugate in colored scanning electron microscopy.
Tympanomastoidectomy, consists of a variety of surgical procedures, such as open tympanoplasty, obliterative tympanoplasty, intact canal tympanoplasty and staged tympanoplasty. Which type of procedure should be selected is the choice of the surgeon upon consideration for enhancement of hearing and less complications following surgery. One hundred thirty five cases of tympanomastoidectomy, all performed by the author himself from 1977 through 1984, were analyzed of hearing before and after surgery. Survey of audiogram was pinpointed on 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 CPS with the post-operative gap between the new post-operative air conduction and the preoperative bone conduction at varing intervals through 6 month up to 4 years after surgery. In conclusion, the author stressed that there was no difference in enhancement of hearing in cases of cholesteatoma regardless of any different procedures of tympanomastoidectomy selected. In cases of adhesive otitis media, which aim of tympanoplasty is to construct a physiological fitted aerospace in the tympanic cavity, open tympanoplasty were able to obtain social hearing as good as staged tympanoplasty. Intact canal tympanoplasty or obliterative tympanoplasty are more recommended to use in cases of chronic granulative otitis media rather than open tympanoplasty. The factors which had an influence on the results of hearing obtained after surgery were the extent of the damage seen in the middle ear, and the ability of the surgeon to select the most suitable operation for otitis media. Whether the mastoid cavity was opened or not made no difference in the final results.
A cytological analysis in 330 samples of middle ear effusions (MEEs) from the children with otitis media with effusion (OME) was performed with the use of cytocentrifuge method. MayGiemsa stained smears were classified into five types on the bases of the inflammatory cellular patterns, i. e., neutrophil dominant type (N), mononuculear cell dominant type (M), mixed type (Mix), mucous and cellular remnant type (M. CR), and too few cells type (FC). And the cellular types such classified were compared with their clinical data in order to obtain the definitive information about the inflammatory state and process in the middle ear cavity (MIC). The results were as follows: 1) A large descrepancy was observed between the global appearance and cytological findings of the MEEs. 2) In acute group OME, almost sixty per cent of the MEEs showed (N) type smears. In chronic group, the percentage of (N) type smears were decreased to 23.5% and (M) type, (Mix) type, (M. CR) type, and (FC) type smears were increased to 18.5%, 14.5%, 31.2% and 12.4%, respectively. 3) On the other hand, in chronic group MEEs of cases who had a recent episode of acute exaservation showed (N) type smears in 55.6%. 4) Long term examination of smears in each case revealed the presence of continuous changes in the cytological patterns. From the results described above, the cytological analysis of MEEs may be one of the useful breakthrough in order to clarify the mechanism of chronicity of OME.
Parotid adenolymphoma is composed of two histologic components; epithelial and lymphoid. Although theories regarding the histogenesis of this tumor have long been disputed, there have been no definite conclusions. The purpose of this study was to clarify the origin of the lymphoid tissue and the epithelial component of this tumor by histochemical and immuno-pathological techniques, electron microscopy and a survey of HE-stained sections. The results obtained were as follows: The characteristics of the epithelial component were similar to those of the striated ducts and the excretory ducts of the normal parotid gland. Morphological studies showed the presence of parotid ductal inclusion in the lymphnodes around the tumor. The lymphoid tissues of the adenolymphoma had many similarities to those of the normal or reacted lymphnodes. B-lymphocytic proliferation as well as increased content of IgA were evident through various immunological and immunohistochemical analyses. The absence of the myoepithelial cells in the tumor was indicated by observation of the anti-actin anti-serum-reacting cells and by electron microscopical studies. Based on these results, it was assumed that the lymphoid tissues of adonolymphoma were composed of the lymphatic tissues of the normal or reacted lymphnode, and that the origin of the epithelial component was the parotid ductal inclusion in the lymphnodes in or around the parotid gland.