A review was made on one hundred clinical cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy who visi-ted the Voice and Speech Clinic of the Depart-ment of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Tokyo, during the past four years and eight months.There was no significant difference in sex ratio and a survey of age distribution showed a peak at the third decade of life. The causes of palsy were; thyroidectomy in 32, diseases and surgery on the neck other than thyroidectomy in 10, intratho-ratic surgery in 12, chest diseases in 9, associated laryngeal palsy in 9, postoperative complication other than chest and neck surgery in 4 and idio-pathic in 24, respectively. A discussion was made on the problem of the position of paralyzed cord especially from the view point of electromyographic study. The au-thors were agreeable neither with Semon-Rosen-bach's theory nor with Wagner-Grossmann's and considered that the overall balance of the tonus of muscles relating to vocal cord movement would play an important role in deciding the position of the prarlyzed cord. The authors also made a long term follow-up of dysphonic cases and observed that approxima-tely 40% of the cases showed improvement in breathy character of voice within one year. Further discussion was made on therapeutic approaches and significance of voice therapy inc-luding pushing exercise was stressed. Indication and technique of mediofixation operation was pre-sented based on our experience in 10 cases.
The author reported on changes in the AP. CM. SP. of cats and, guinea pigs for the several days following the section of the 8th nerve at the entrance of the internal auditory meatus. Cats and guinea pigs were anesthetized with nembut- al. The chief results were as follows: 1) The electrical responses of the neural com- ponents to click could be recorded for 10 days af- ter the section of the 8th nerve without disturbing blood supply. 2) The latency of AP. Nt after the section showed no significant change compared with that before the section. 3) Immediately after the section the ampli- tude of AP. N1N2 increased to 165%, and subseq- uently reduced to 84% after 12 hours. 4) The biphasic deflection of AP was recor- ded at the entrance of the internal auditory mea- tus. 5) A slow negative potential appeared bet- ween N1 and N2 of AP., with lower intensity es- pecially-30 db. 6) AP. N1 was able to be recorded for 69 hours on an average and disappeared completely after 72 hours. 7) CM. and SP. were able to be recorded for 10 days after the section. No remarkable changes were observed in the amplitude of CM after the section. 8) In order to experiment in a short time, guinea pigs were used whose 8th nerve was sec- tioned tbrouth the cerebellum. The wave form of AP changed immediatly after the section as same as in case of cats.
The author studied on the activity of a single vestibular neuron caused by stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal of the guinea pigs. Im- pulses in the N. ampullaris lateralis were measu- red. The action potentials of the units were either monophasic or diphasic spikes with the amplitude ranging from 0.3 to 2 mV and with spike duration about 0.5 or 1 msec. Responses of the units in fistular stimulus fell into three different types: " A " units were irregular, " B " displayed a precise interspike interval, and in " C " volleys of impulses and pauses alternately appeared. The author supposed that the " B " and " C " units would be impulses from sensory hair cells which were able to respond to bi-and unidirec-tional endolymph current respectively.
A series of rotatory tests and caloric tests wa performed to know the vestibular reactions of nor mal children who were in the range of age fron new born up to 15 years old. Time duration o f nystagmus, frequency of nystagmus, and maximun eye-speed in slow phase of nystagmus (MES) to each stimulation were examined and their normal values and their differences in variou ages were evaluated. 1) Vestibular organ of those subjects, even an infant, can react to the stimulation. The reac- tion can be quantitatively estimated according to the nystagmus which served as a standard. 2) The tests can be applicable regardless of children's age. 3) Vestibular reactions of new born infants and older children up to the age of three were recog - nizable. But in many cases, their reactions can hardly be measured quantitatively. 4) With regard to duration and frequency of nystagmus very faint reactions were recognized in the children under four years old. The dura - tion of postrotational nystagmus in the youngest group was approximately 40 seconds, and that of caloric nystagmus extended to about 300 seconds. These reaction values were about 20 per cents of those for adults. In children ranging in age from 4 years to 6 years, the reaction values increased remarkably to almost the same level as adults. The reaction values of the children between seven and nine years old were the highest of all from 0 to 15 years old. The highest values mentioned above were approximately 80 seconds in the dura- tion of postrotational nystagmus and about 650 seconds in that of caloric nystagmus. The chil- dren who were above ten years old showed less reaction values in proportion to growth of age until they reached down to the reaction values of adults. 5) Not same as to the time duration and fre- quency of nystagmus, the reaction of MES was found much in those of low age group, and dec- reased in accordance with age. 6) It was considered that the standard to eva- luate the vestibular reaction of children should be firstly the time duration of nystagmus, secondly frequency of nystagmus, and then MES. 7) The results of examining CP (canal paresis) and DP (directional preponderance) of caloric test led to the conclusion that if CP was more than 12*per cent and DP more than 15 per cent, it made doubt as an abnormal case furthermore, if CP went up to 25 per cent or more, and DP more than 35 per cent, such a case was pathologic withaut doubt.
Fourty-one cases (47 ears) of tympanisclerosis were examined and the features of the disease were discussed on the basis of both the statistical analysis and the operation findings. A tympanosclerosis does not always take place an end-result of well controlled inflammation. It is frequently accompanied by a residual inflammation. According to our experiences with histologic examination of removed tissues, an inflamma tory mucosa around the ossicles may demonstrate a small focus of dense fibrosis. This focus possibly presents to us an initial pattern of onset of tympanosclerosis. Histological examination failed to demonstratean invasive type of tympanosclerosis. So we think the disease involves the mucous membrane alone. Tympanoplasty operation was successful in a case of localized tympanosclerosis, but frequently unsuccessful in an extensive case where a sclerotic tissue involves all the ossicles
The authors reported the results of field survey and family follow-up on acatalasemia and hy- pocatalasemia during the year of 1965. No hypocatalasemic case was seen in the tests of 2, 897 individuals at two places of Japan Proper. And a hypocatalasemic boy was found out among 10, 083 children of Miyako Is., Ryukyu. In 1965, ten acatalasemias of six families at various parts in the world were added to the for- merly known cases. Consequently, the total of reported acatalase- mias amounted to 90 cases of 43 families by the end of 1965.