Although accumulated studies of the ciliated cells have been made, the initiation and regulation of ciliary beat, and their metachronal coordination remains unknown. The bioelectrical activity at different depths of the rabbit tracheal wall was registered by capillary microelectrode under optimal physiological condition during in vitro experiments. And the influence on the electric potential of the ciliated cell layer and smooth muscle in sodium deficient medium was also investigated. Three characteristic layers of the tracheal wall could be electrophysiologically identified. Espe cially, as the electrode was moved down at a depth of 10-20p, the bioelectric potential fluctuations showing DC-level of -20 to -40mV, with an amplitude of 100-300pV and a frequency varied from 15 to 20Hz were recorded. In consideration of the histological structure of the respiratory mucosa and the frequency of the ordinary ciliary beat rate, it was speculated that these rhythmic oscillations might be ascribed to the intracellular recording of the ciliated cell or to mechanical fluctuation of the microelectrode due to the ciliary movement. However, no remakable changes were seen in the oscillatory potentials when sodium deficient solution was applied to the tissue. Therefore, it is not fully clear from the results whether one action potential corresponds to one ciliary beat. Scanning electron micrographs of the ciliated epithelia which were taken with the microelectrode penetrated into the specimen after measurement of electric activity were useful to clarify the relation between microelectrode and surface architecture of the cell.
Vocal cord motion reflexly induced by stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve(SLN)with single or frequent electrical shock was observed.Evoked potentials in the internal laryngeal muscles were recorded.Conclusions are as follows; 1.The vocal cord adducted reflexly by single shock stimulation of the internal branch of the SLN, but returned quickly to the intermediate position. 2.Reflex contraction by single shock stimulation was observed not only in the adductor muscles but also in the abductor. 3.By frequent stimulation of the internal branch of the the SLN, on the othe other hand, adduction of the vocal cord into the midline continued even after some ten seconds of stimulation.The vocal cord became short and the closure of glottis was sphincteric in type. 4.In case of frequent stimulation, reflexly evoked potentials were obserbed only in the adductor muscles.The abductor, on the contrary, was reflexly inhibited. 5.Spasmic-after-discharges were induced mainly in the thyroarytenoid muscle, which play an important role in spasmic closure of the larynx. 6.Origin of spasmic-after-discharge was discussed.
This study was carried out to examine how the evoked response was modified by the spontaneous brain activity. Twenty samples of the averaged spontaneous brain activities were made of a deeply sleeping child of 1 year 8 months old and an awakening adult of 21 years old. Using the complex waveform synthesixer (Exact Model 201), the artificially evoked responses (Ar. E. R. s) were made, which were corresponding to the evoked responses of the deeply sleeping child and the awakening adult.Ten graded different amplitudes of Ar. E. R. s were prepared for the child and for the adult.Each of the Ar. E. R. s were conposed of averaged spontaneous brain activities. Two well trained examiners independently determined the presence of the Ar. E. R. s in 200 composed samples and 20 averaged spontaneous brain activities. 1. It was less significant in the deeply sleeping child than in the awakening adult that the positive determination rate increased with an increase in the amplitude of the Ar. E. R. s. 2. False positive determination occurred 12.5 per cent only in the deeply sleeping child. 3. In case of the deeply sleeping child, the positive determinations were given when the P2-N2 amplitudes of the composed samples were between 19.2-38.5μV. The corresponding P2-N2 amplitudes of the Ar. E. R. s were between 12-60μV. There was no significant correlation between the P2-N2 amplitude of the composed samples and the corresponding Ar. E. R.s. 4. When the positive determination rate attained 100per cent for the first time, the percentage of the amplitude of each composed sample as compared with that of the corresponding At. E. R.ranged from 85.7 to 131.4 in case of the awakening adult. It ranged from 36. 3 to 188. 0 in case of the deeply sleeping child. 5. The range of the latencies in the composed samples was similar to that in ordinary averaged evoked responses (A. E. R.). It was difficult to determine the presence or absence of the evoked responses in ordinary A. E. R. of a deeply sleeping child. The determination even by well trained examiners was not always reliable and the averaged evoked response was not consistent due mainly to the modification by the spontaneous brain activity.
Various effects upon respiratory and circuratory systems induced by breath holding have been investigated by many physiologists for a long time. For instance, it increases the systoric and diastoric blood pressure, and decreases the rate of finger tip blood flow and finger tip volume.These circuratory effects have been considered by the excitation of the sympathetic nerve. The nasal mucous membrane is rich in vessels and these vessels are innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. In this paper, it was investigated whether breath holding could have any effect on the vessels in the nasal mucosa. For this purpose, the changes of nasal airway resistance (NAR) were examined. In fifteen normal adults, NAR was determined before and after breath holding. For the determination of NAR, the combined method was used, and the variant ratio of NAR (NAR after breath holding/NAR before breath holding) was calculated. The mean value of fifteen normal adults was 0.57 and the standard deviation was 0.18 In order to investigate the sympathetic effect on this reflex, changes of NAR by breath holding were estimated in four patients with sudden deafness who were treated by stellate ganglion block.In these patients, changes of NAR were not observed. In conclusion, this reflex is highly suspected to be transmitted by the sympathetic nerve.
Four cases of lethal granuloma of the nose, orbit, and palate were reported. These cases revealed the local signs and findings resembled those of Wegener's granulomatosis but were considered as its variant because incompletion of the symptoms. Case 1: A window, aged 53, who had right exophthalmus for one year and had become well by steroid therapy, was referred to our clinic with nasal bleeding and rhinorrhaa. Biopsy specimens from nose and paranasal sinus revealed non-specific inflammation. But a few weeks later, she developed hematuria and anuria. Subacute glomeruritis was diagnosed. She died one year and ten months after the onset of the disease. Case 2: A house wife, aged 59, who had had rheumatic arthritis for two years and had been treated with cortico-steroid, developed left purulent rhinorrhea with blood. Rhinoscopy revealed nasal septal perforation and granulation. Repeated biopsies revealed inflammatory and granulomatous changes with necrosis and the proliferation of atypical reticulum cells.The lesion increased its size and the palate was perforated. One year and five months later, she died due to prostration and bleeding from the lesion. Case 3: A man, aged 55, who had had pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchial asthma, developed nasal obstruction, swelling of the cheek, and fever. Biopsy specimen from the lesion did not reveal evident vasculitis. The hard palate underwent necrotic changes despite steroid and radiation therapy. The patient died four months after the onset of the disease. Case 4: A house wife, aged 50, developed hemorrhagic rhinorrhea, swelling of the root of the nose, and fever. Histogical findings showed inflammation with necrosis. Vasuculitis was not observed. After radiation therapy, the necrotic changes of the palate developed. In the terminal stage, the abdominal distention was recognized. Autopsy findings revealed the infiltration of mononucler histiocytes to liver, kidney, lung and other organs. It should be recognized that there are some lethal granulomatous and necrotic disease arising from the nose, orbit and palate without any specific infection. These cases are not diagnosed as Wegener's granulomatosis but it is considered that there are common pathogenic factors for these non-healing granuloma.
An efficacy on the treatment of tonsillectomy to the persistent glomerulonephritis was investigated in this study. Out of thirty five children with persistent glomerulonephritis determined by clinical diagnosis including a histopathological examination of renal biopsy, seventeen cases, who were assorted randomly, were tonsillectomized and the other eighteen cases treated by conservative therapy as a control. All of thirty five cases were scruitinized in following clinical aspects; i. e., (a) age and sex, (b) comparison of therapeutic effects for improvement of clinical symptomes of nephritis betweentonsillectomy and conservative treatment, (c) influence by preceding infection, (d) relationship oftreatment effects to frequent tonsillitis or unusual ASLO scores and (e) an effect of tonsillectomy in relation to immunosuppressive therapy, tonsillar provocation test and histopathological findings after renal biopy. 1. Tonsillectomy was a beneficial remedy in 88.2% of children who suffering from persistent nephritis and it was significant at the 0. 05 level as compared with conservative therapy which showed the therapeutic effects in 50% of cases. 2. Nineteen out of thirty five children were under eight years old and twenty one were male.In the patients under eight years old 81% of patients had a restoration of clinical manifestation fter surgical or conservative therapy and it was significant at the 0.05 level in contrast with the patients over nine years old. In connection of remedy to the patients over nine years old and male patient, tonsillectomy showed higher therapeutic efficiency than conservative treatment. 3. Tonsillectomy revealed more fairly therapeutic efficacy which was significant at the 0.05 level than conservative therapy in the patients who had preceding infection or frequent tonsillitis.In the patients with ordinary ASLO scores, tonsillectomy seemed to be more effective than conservative therapy, however it fell short of significance at the 0.05 level. In the persistent nephritis of purpura type and insidious type, tonsillectomy appeared to bring on an improvement of clinical manifestations, however they fell short of significance at the 0.05 level. 4. All of the cases who showed a temporary improvement after immunosuppressive therapy, had the satisfactory improvement in clinical manifestations after tonsillectomy or conservative therapy. 5. Seven patients who were determined as the positive tonsillar provocation test before operation had a comfortable clinical improvement after surgery. Two out of four patients who showed negative tonsillar provocation test, had an improved clinical manifestation and others remained to be unchanged renal function
Recording of odorant evoked response from the human scalp has been reported by Finkenzeller (1966), Allison (1967), Giesen (1970) and Herberhold (1972). It is technically difficult in the chemical senses. This report presents two methods of odorant presentation in human odorant evoked response.1) A teflon tube was inserted into the olfactory region and the odorous substance was blasted by activating the electromagnetic valve. The electromagnetic valve was connected with the trigger circuit of an analog averager, for stimulus-locked aveaging. Twenty responses were averaged. 2) The phototransistor and a light source were set up in the rectiline at the nostril The filterpaper dipped in the odorous substance was put in between the phototransistor and the light source during the inspiratory phase. The phototransistor was connected with the trigger circuit of the analog averager. When the light source was interrupted by the filter paper, a trigger pulse to the analog averager was activated. Twenty responses were averaged. Results were as follows: 1) By the first method, the average evoked response to the odorant stimulation (dl-camphor) was recorded, and the response was obtained even in the case of no odorant stimulation. The response was consisted of a wave with peak latency of 200 msec, in both experiments. It was supposed that this average evoked response was the auditory response to the click produced by the electromagnetic valve, or to the blast by opening of the valve. 2) By the second method, the average evoked response to the odorant stimulation (dl-camphor)has been recorded, and it was consisted of a wave with peak latency of 400 msec. The click and pressure sensation on the mucous membrane in the olfactory region by the blast are supposed to give some effects on EEG. The second method has advantage over the first one to exclude these adverse effects.