Ultrastructural and biochemical studies of tumors originated from autonomic nervous system are rare. Ganglioneuroma of a 3.5-year-old girl was examined ultrastructurally and biochemically.The patient noticed soybean sized tumor at the left submandibular region in spring, 1972. She visited a pediatrician being diagnosed as lymphadenitis but received no therapy. Since January 1973, the tumor increased its size gradually. And for further examination, she was referred to our hospital on April 16, 1973. She did not complain of any special symptoms, likely hypertension, hyperhidrosis or diarrhea.The tumor was about 6 x 5cm in size, without adhesion to skin, but with adhesion to underlying tissues. Her left wall of the pharyx was swollen and soft palate was pushed foward. Laboratory data, including intravenous pyelography, were not paticular. Roentogenologically, calcification of the tumor was not observed. Biopsied specimen was revealed ganglioneuroma. Upon surgical exploration on June 4, 1973, the tumor was found between external and internal carotid arteries and vagal nerve, and extending upwards to the base of the skull. The excised tumor was approximately 50 gram in weight and gray-white in color in cross-section. Radical resection of the tumor was successfully performed and the post-operative course was uneventfull.
Pulse-train stimulation was given to the horizontal ampullar and to the abducens nerves in cats respectively and each response of the lateral rectus muscle was observed. In the responses of the lateral rectus muscle induced by stimulation to the horizontal ampullar nerve in awakened stage, isometric mechanogram of tetanic contraction showed an exponential reduction in the rise and the half rise times according to the increase of stimulation-frequency, and showed a convex increase. In anesthetized stage the tetanic contraction showed more prolongation in the rise and the half rise times than in awakened stage and showed a lineal or concave increase on the mechanogram especially wheu stimulation was given under 300 Hz. Concave or convex curves of mechanogram could be clearly formed by means of double pulse-train stimulation at each of the three parts. In the responses of the lateral rectus muscle induced by stimulation to the abducens nerve, the rise time showed little difference from that of ampullar nerve stimulation in awakened stage but the half rise time reduced to 1/2, and all the mechanograms showed a convex increase. The muscular responses induced by electric stimulation were compared with those of nystagmus in regard to rise time course. The distributions of the rise and the half rise times of tetanic contractions induced by pulse-train stimulation to the horizontal ampullar nerve in anesthetized stage corresponded to u range of the rise time courses in the slow phase of moderate and weak nystagmus, and in awakened stage and in the abducens nerve stimulation corresponded to the range of the slow phase of active nystagmus. The distributions of the rise time courses of tetanic contractions induced by stimulation to the horizontal ampullar nerve in awakened stage and in anesthetized stage corresponded to the range of the fast phase of moderate and weak nystagmus, and the half rise and the rise times of the abducens nerve corresponded to those of the fast phase of active nystagmus. The mechanisms of muscular activities in the slow and the fast phases of nystagmus were explicated through the phenomena of the rise time courses and the patterns of muscular contractions elicited by electric stimulation to the horizontal ampullar and to the abducens nerves.
Throat culture" by swabbing the surface of tonsil is quite advantageous for determining the organisms which may cause tonsillitis, because, this method is quite easy and considered to be reliable. Currently, however, not all of the residual and transcient organisms in throat are said to be found with this method of identification, and the distribution of organisms which are carried by the parenchyma of tonsil is eventually different from those of the surface of tonsils. It is the purpose of this paper to make sure the reliability of the "throat culture". Bacteriological cultures were performed from palatine tonsil just before the tonsillectomy and from the excised tonsils, almost simultaneously. The excised tonsils were devided into four parts, and the distributions of the bacteria of each part were examined and compared. Their statistical estimation showed no differences in their bacterial population among the surface of tonsils and each part of the excised tonsils. This means that the surface of tonsils carries the same organisms as those in the parenchyma of tonsil. Then, "throat culture" can be said quite reliable, and available as the clinical examination because of its easiness.
The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the righting responses in various standing posture tests by means of the acceleration registrogram (ARG) (Fig. 3B). Posture tests performed were Romberg's, Mann's and goniometer (Honjo's electrically driven goniometer) test. Fifty-four patients with vertigo were examined and their ARG patterns were divided into 6 types (Fig. 21) in compasion with those of healthy control subjects. Type I: ARG patterns during Romberg's, Mann's and goniometer tests were within normal limits in both open and closed eyes. Type II: ARG during Mann's and goniometer tests showed abnormality in only closed eyes. Type III: ARG in all posture tests except Romberg's test showed abnormal pattern in both open and closed eyes. Type IV: ARG in all posture tests revealed abnormal body sways. Type V : ARG in all posture tests showed abnormal peculier spiky waves. Type VI: ARG in goniometer test showed abnormal pattern in both open and closed eyes, although ARG in Mann's test showed nothing particular.
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of insertion of 0.3 ml black ink into the stylomastoid foramen in 30 rabbits. In all animals, vestibular nystagmus lasting from 30 seconds to 20 minutes was elicited. As to the quick phase of the elicited nystagms, there were three groups of responses. In Group A (i i of 30 animals), after insertion of black ink, horizontal nystagmus to the inserted side lasting from 4 to 45 seconds were first observed and after this period, nystagmus to the opposite side lasting from 35 seconds to 20 minutes was elicited in 7 of 11 animals, and in one, the direction changed to vertical in nature. In Group B (14 of 30 animals), horizontal or oblique nystagmus to the opposite side of the insertion lasted from 40 seconds to 7 minutes and 45 seconds without changing direction. In Group C (5 of 30 animals), after the procedure, upwards vertical nystagmus lasting from 15 seconds to one minute and 35 seconds was first observed and after this period, in 4 of these 5 animals, oblique or horizontal nystagmus lasting from one to 8 minutes was elicited. Ten days after the above mentioned procedure, all animals were sacrificed. Macroscopically, the black ink inserted into the stylomastoid foramen flowed into the internal ear canal through the facial canal (Fig. 1) and optically and scanning electron microscopically, it was not found in the perilymphatic or endolymphatic spaces (Fig. 2) From this results, it was emphasized that nystagmus induced by insertion of black ink into the stylomastoid foramen in rabbits was not due to the stimulation of the endorgen in the labyrinth, but due to the stimulation of the vestibular nerve fibers.
The palatine tonsil is believed to have immunological function as lymphatic organ. To study its contribution to immunity, the changes of the serum immunoglobulin levels in rabbits before and after tonsillectomy were investigated. This fundamental study may be important to determine appropriate time of tonsillectomy. Rabbits were divided into two groups. 1) Younger group Rabbits were tonsillectomized at 3 weeks to 12 weeks after birth, and serum immunoglobulins were measured sequentially and compared with those of not operated group. 2) Adult group Streptococcus haemolyticus and Staplylococus aureus were injected into the palatine tonsils of the Adult rabbits, when ASL-O and ASK titer was getting higher, rabbits were tonsillectomized, and serum immunoglobulins, ASL-O and ASK titer were measured sequentially. The results were as follows; 1) Younger group i) Not operated group IgG and total immunoglobulin levels remained within normal range until 5 weeks after birth, and the highest levels were observed at 9 weeks after birth. IgM and IgA levels showed no significant changes in the course of their life. ii) Operated group The levels of IgG and total immunoglobulins were not changed or decreased 2-3 weeks after tonsillectomy. When animals were older than 7 weeks after birth, immunoglobulins levels were almost not affected by tonsillectomy. The IgM and IgG levels remained nearly at the not operated levels. 2) Adult group IgG and total immunoglobulin levels tended to decrease in 2-3 wdeks, but showed only a few effects after operation. ASL-O and ASK titer increased temporalily and then decreased slowly.