Quantitative analysis of the intranodular structure in liver cirrhosis was attempted on biopsy specimens with histometrioal methods. Capillarization per unit volume of liver cells was found much reduced in comparison with the normal liver. The result was attributed to enormous thickening or hypertrophy of liver cell plates. Not only enlargement of individual liver cells but also cell multiplication was ascertained as the cause of hypertrophy. A perverted hyperplasia was assumed in the behavior of liver cells in liver cirrhosis, which was found neither in normal liver nor in any stage of hepatitis. Cirrhotic nodules were not regarded as products of simple regeneration of liver cells. The histometrical results were also of diagnostic value in discriminating liver cirrhosis from other misleading conditions particularly on small biopsy specimens, where cirrhotic nodules could not be always identified.
Under some theoretical premises, irregular dichotomy was presumed on the ramification of intrapulmonary bronchial system, and mathematical derivations were discussed to give the total length of bronchial branches of radii within a certain given range. The theoretical values were assessed by counting the bronchial sections on histological slides from the lungs expanded by intrabronchial formalin infusion: from the count the total length of bronchi of the corresponding radii in a unit pulmonary volume could be estimated. The agreement of theoretical and estimated values was satisfactory in the majority of normal lungs of young and aged adults. In cases of discrepancy, the reason was sought in individual variations of the geometrical configuration of the bronchial tree, especially in different generations of bronchial branches yielding respiratory bronchioles.
A sibling case of hyperphenylalaninemia without phenylpyruvic aciduria was described. An oral loading of phenylalanine revealed a delay of clearance of serum phenylalanine, a slight elevation of serum tyrosine, and an increased urinary excretion of phenylpyTuvic acid and o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver was found to be of about one-tenth the normal activity. These findings suggest that hyperphenlyalaninemia may be a genetic variant of phenylketonuria.
The appearance of subthreshold sudomotor nerve impulses in human skin was demonstrated in a cool environment when generalized sweating was absent. Continuous recording of the rate of local sweating induced by intradermal injection of some sudorific agents showed small upward deflections of the sweat rate curve representing sweat expulsions which were synchronous in different skin areas. These sweat expulsions corresponded to electric potential changes of the adjacent skin area, which were also s nchronous with those of the palm. These observations clearly indicate that, evea in the absence of general sweating, a subthreshold amount of transmitter substance is being released at the neuroglandular junction for each nerve impulse and gives rise to a detectable rate of sweat discharge in the presence of an adequate effective amount of the sudorific agent. Such sweat expulsions as well as the skin potential changes became progressively less distinct with a fall in environmental temperature.
Electronmicroscopic observation was performed on four cases with macro-globulinemia Waldenstrom. Although both the peripheral and bone marrow blood pictures were different in each case, lymphocytes dominated in all cases. In two cases, a number of plasma cells and a few atypical lymphocytes were also recognized. The lymphocytes usually did not show any specific features, except for some aggregation of a large number of ribosomes without regular arrangement. Plasma cells had well-developed granular endoplasmic reticulums in lamellar, globular or dilated form and ribosomes often formed well-arranged polysomes like a rosette. Atypical lymphocytes contained prominent nucleolus and abundant ribosomes which formed polysomes unlike the rosette shape. Though the filamentous structure was not unusual, neither fibrillar formation nor crystalline structure was recognized in all cell types. From the ultrastructural point of view, plasma cells would be able to produce the immunoglobulin. Atypical lymphocytes may be also capable of immunoglobulin production. Though the lymphocytes were less likely to be globulin-producing cells, their overwhelming frequency and fluorescent microscopic observation suggested their participation in globulin production. The lymphocytes with a massive aggregation of ribosomes may have some relation to globulin production. In conclusion, it was not confirmed that the cells of macroglobulinemia had any specific type of ultrastructural features.
The metabolic fate of lysolecithin administered into the rat duodenal lumen was investigated, using lyso-(1-acyl)-lecithin labeled with (methyl-14C)-choline or (2-3H)-glycerol. Lecithin was the most radioactive in phospholipids of the tissues of the intestine and liver. Lecithin was subfractionated into 4 molecular species according to the degree of unsaturation. No definite evidence was obtained for the difference in 14C- and 3H-specific activities between the subfractions of intestinal lecithin. In liver lecithin, the 14C-specific activity was much higher in monoenoic and dienoic subfractions than in the other polyenoic ones. Appreciable portions of 3H-activity were incorporated into intestinal neutral lipids. The activity was the highest in triglyceride and moderate in diglyceride but showed only a trace in monoglyoeride. The 14C-activity was appreciably incorporated into the acid soluble fraction. Three radioactive compounds were detected in both tissues. In the intestine at 10 minutes' period, the activity was highest in glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline, remarkable in phosphoryl-choline and showed only a trace in free choline, but during 90 minutes' period the three compounds showed almost the same level of activity. In the liver at 90 minutes, the radioactivity was the highest in phosphoryl-choline, moderate in oholine, but negligible in glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline.
By the application of Benditt-Arase's consideration as to enzyme kinetics in a histochemical system, glycogen metabolism was examined in psoriasis vulgaris. The psoriatic epidermis showed significant increase in glycogen synthetase activity as compared with the normal epidermis. On α-glucan phosphorylase activity, however, there was little difference between the normal and psoriatic epidermis.
The major mucins purified from bovine, ovine and porcine submaxillary glands were dansylated in order to determine the amino-terminal amino acids qualitatively. The dansyl-amino acids formed after acid hydrolysis were separated by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel. Dansylglycine was obtained from the porcine material, dansyl-L-serine from the ovine material, and dansyl-n-aspartic acid from the bovine material. The amounts were small as would be expected from the high molecular weights of the mucins.
The papillary muscle of the canine right ventricle was perfused at a constant pressure of 100mm Hg with the blood from a donor dog by a cross-circulation technique. The papillary muscle was isometrically contracted by electrical stimulation through bipolar platinum electrodes, at 0.5 to 1.5 volts (the voltage approximately twice the threshold), 5 msec and 120 per min. When the strength of electrical stimulation was raised either with high voltage or with long pulse-duration at a constant frequency of 120 per min, the positive inotropic response was obtained in parallel with increasing strength of the stimulation. The positive inotropic response by increasing voltage was apparently enhanced by atropine and hemicholinium, and blocked by β-adrenergic blocking agent and tetrodotoxin. Guanethidine treatment converted the positive inotropic response to the pronounced negative one, which was blocked by atropine. These facts present some evidence that not only adrenergic but also cholineruie nerve. fibers exist, in the canine papillary muscle.