A morphometric method was presented to estimate brain swelling or atrophy from the geometric characteristics of the pontine cross section. The ratio of the area (A) to the perimeter squared (L2) was termed “area factor” (f) and used as a factor indicating circularity. Normal standards for the net cross-sectional area (Ap) and the area factor (f) of the pons measured on paraffin sections were 3.43_??_4.87cm2 and 0.0684_??_0.0740, respectively. Values exceeding these ranges suggested brain edema. The pontine area factors (f) of the control cases under 60 years of age were less spread out than Ap, whereas they exhibited larger individual variations over that age presumably as a result of varying involution of the brain. A close correlation was found between Ap and water content of the cerebral white matter, except in pontine hemorrhage. The correlation was particularly marked in the group of cerebral diseases other than stroke. The longitudinal length of the basis pontis (lp) was essentially the same in the normal brain and even in the stroke group excluding pontine and cerebellar hemorrhage. In severe brain swelling the pontine longitudinal length was rather reduced.
A technique of consecutive radiography of the serially sliced breast was evolved and applied to a comparative study on the breast of Japanese in Japan (75 subjects) and Hawaii (49). Increased mammary fat accounts for an increase in the size of the Hawaii Japanese breast (mean; 152.4cm3) in comparison with that in Japan (82.5cm3). However, the glandular volume calculated from the radiographs and lobular structures in histology were not significantly different in the two groups. A small subclinical lesion measuring over 3mm in diameter in a histological section was radiographically detected. In Hawaii, duct-epithelial hyperplasia and apocrine metaplasia were significantly more prevalent than in Japan, and the former lesion was most conspicuous in the large mammary gland.
Our previous work demonstrated that the prenatally irradiated ultrasound of even a low-intensity might affect the functional development of the brain of offspring in rats. In the present study, in order to investigate the emotional and cognitive behaviour of offspring of rats that received the irradiation of a diagnostic ultrasound on the 9th day of gestation, the following three experiments were carried out: 1) The emotional reactivity of the offspring was measured by the open-field technique. 2) The same reactivity was further evaluated in terms of the escape response from electroshock. 3) The cognitive function of the offspring was assessed through the discrimination learning and the discrimination reversal learning. The offspring of irradiated rats showed significantly more distinct vocalization response to handling in the open-field test and significantly more distinct escape response from the electroshock, when compared with the two control rats (untreated control and sham-irradiated control). From these findings it may be suggested that the emotional behaviour in rats can be influenced by a low-intensity ultrasound irradiated during foetal stage. On the other hand, as for the cognitive behaviour, the results of the present study suggest no adverse effect on it.
Blood pressure changes were followed up for 1-12 years (average; 3.8 years) in 46 cases of confirmed postoperative chronic pyelonephritis which had undergone ureterocutaneostomy, nephrostomy or other urologic operations. Diastolic blood pressure levels averaged 82 mmHg before operation, and 89 mmHg in the chronic stage after the operation. The incidence of hypertension (over 100mmHg diastolic pressure) was 7% before the operation, but rose to 30% in the chronic stage. Application of an “age-and sex-adjusted score” also served to confirm a mean increase in blood pressure through the development of chronic pyelonephritis. No correlation was found between renal function and blood pressure. Nor was there any definite relation-ship between family history of hypertension and high blood pressure. In the 14 cases observed for plasma renin activity, values were found to be in the normal range.
Immunofluorescent study was attempted to determine whether or not virus antigen were present in the epidermis of measles eruptions. The electron microscopic observations of the same materials were also performed to detect viral localization in affected skins. The failure to detect any virus antigen in affected epidermis throughout all eruptive stages seems to be sufficient evidence to conclude that measles rash is_??_not a manifestation of viral replication in the epidermis. Dotted fluorescences were detected in a specimen taken at pre-eruptive day in capillary endothelium of dermis. At the same stage, microtubular structures which were probably identical with measles virus nucleo-capsids occurred in capillary endothelium under the electron microscopic observations. It is concluded that measles rash is possibly caused by an antigen-antibody reaction of Arthus type. On very rare occasions, measles virus nucleocaspids were found in the cytoplasm of dermal fibroblast in the vicinity of dermal capillary. Ultrastructural features of these nucleocapsids were demon-strated to be identical to features of microtubular structures found in endothelial cells.
OIKAWA, K.Electron Microscopic Observation of Inclusion Bodies in Plasma Cells of Multiple Myeloma and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia.Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1975, 117 (3), 257-281-Intracellular inclusion bodies in the plasma cells were sought by electron microscopy in 32 cases of multiple myeloma and 3 of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. In some cases, round shaped intranuclear inclusions and intranuclear fibrillar bundles were observed. In other cases, Russell bodies and crystalline structures were found in the cisternae of rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and dense bodies, myelin-like structures, fibrillar formations, polysome lamellae complexes, crystalline structures, virus-like particles and phagocytosis were observed in the cytoplasm of plasma cells. The detailed ultrastructure of these inclusions was described, and their functional significance, origin and appearance rate were discussed. Finally, the presence of true viral particles in the plasma cells was ruled out.-ultrastructure of inclusion bodies; multiple myeloma; Waldenstrom's macröglobulinemia
Lymphocytic infiltration was observed in 44 of 51 (86%) 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced sarcomas in rats which had been intensively immunized with allogeneic tumors. Eleven of 29 (38%) tumors with intense lymphocytic infiltration and 5 of 15 (33%) tumors with moderate lymphocytic infiltration were “negative” in autologous transplantation. On the other hand, all of 7 tumors accompanied with slight or no lymphocytic infiltration were “positive”.
Muscle fiber orientation in the left ventricular myocardial layer was histometrically estimated in normal, concentric and eccentric hypertrophied hearts. The angle of inclination of muscle fibers from coronal section was largest in the innermost and outermost zones and was progressively diminished toward the middle layer in all the hearts. In the inner layer, the inclination was depressed in eccentric hypertrophy, while there was no difference in fiber orientation in the outer layer. Concentric hypertrophy proved to be an intermediate stage between the normal heart and eccentric hypertrophy, and no opposite behavior was found in the arrangement of heart muscle fibers. The results supported the following view on the mechanism in the activity of hypertrophied hearts. Cardiac hypertrophy is a common accom-modation process to increased load, regardless of the difference in the macro-scopical shape. In hypertrophy, the ventricular cavity is inevitably enlarged. Consequently, the tension exerted on the ventricular wall on account of intraventricular pressure increases, and the contractile force required from a unit thickness of the ventricular wall is enhanced. The muscle fibers meet this increased demand by starting contraction from an over-stretched state and by ceasing its activity after smaller shortening than in the normal heart.