Donryu rats were given N-methyl-N'-nitroN-nitrosoguanidine per os for a maximum period of 14 months, and sacrificed at intervals in order to assess histopathologic process occurring in the glandular stomach. A total of 129 gross lesions were found in 72 of 85 effective animals, which histologically included 48 adenomatous hyperplasias secondary to regenerative hyperplasias of glands at the margins of erosions or shtsllow ulcers, 21 adenocarcinomas and 2 sarcomas. All except one (intramucosal mucous cell carcinoma) of the 21 adenocarcinomas developed on the basis of adenomatous hyperplasias, and three patterns were discriminated in the studies. In Series A adenomatous tissues proliferated horizontally and then invaded submucosa or below in a ciasson-like fashion; malignant change took place at the deepest portion of such a lesion and ultimately led to adenocarcinoma that resembled Borrmann III human gastric cancer. In Series B adenomatous tissues grew upwards to form a polypoid mass, which underwent malignant change and resulted in a Borrmann I type adenocarcinoma. In Series C which appeared to be the commonest pattern, adenomatous tissues grew downwards through small interruption of muscularis mucosae; adenocarcinoma developed at the bottom of such an iceberg-like lesion and eventually formed a Borrmann II type tumor as a result of secondary ulceration.
Comparative histologic examination and measurement of amylase values in pancreas and parotid gland were made on thirteen rats of the control group and eight rats with experimentally produced acute pancreatitis. Histologically, the grade of findings of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis well correlated to that of the atrophic changes of the parotid gland. With respect to the amylase values, the acute pancreatitis group apparently showed lower amylase values in both pancreas and parotid gland than those in the control group. Lowering rate of amylase value was remarkable in pancreas, while it was moderate in parotid gland. It was concluded that the experimental production of acute pancreatitis also caused atrophic changes and hypofunction of the parotid gland.
The authors studied restoration of the function of denervated muscle in cats by implanting the proximal cut end of the peripheral nerve directly into acutely denervated muscle as well as into the muscle which had been denervated 10 weeks or 6 months previously. From the electromyographical, histological and histochemical studies on the muscle with nerve implanted, it was revealed that the chronically denervated muscle retained still an ability to recover its motor and stretch sensory functions. This suggests that this technique may be applicable to the peripheral nerve surgery in certain clinical cases.
Cervical and cardiac blood samples aseptically taken at different time (within 20 hours after death) from 79 cadavers were microbiologically studied and the results were correlated together with the antemortem blood cultures and antibiotic therapies. In 65 cases (82 per cent), the results of both samples were well correlated with each other regardless of the postmortem time lapse and disease. Further analysis indicates that the culture results of cardiac blood drawn from the additional 10 cadavers (13 per cent) at aseptic autopsy were well correlated with the antemortem microbiological data and culture results of other tissues taken at the same autopsies. This study indicates, therefore, that the time lapse (up to 20 hours after death) does not significantly affect the sterility of the blood specimens.
One thousand five hundred and twenty five specimens from 582 malignant and 13 non-malignant surgical and autopsy patients were studied for mycoplasma. The malignancies included leukemias, lymphomas, carcinomas and sarcomas. The specimens included hematopoietic tissues such as bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes, as well as organs such as liver, stomach, kidney, serous effusions and cardiac blood (whole blood, plasma and serum). Although mycoplasmas were occasionally isolated during the tissue culture studies with these specimens, no direct isolation of mycoplasma was encountered with exception of one surgical case (a carcinoma of the floor of the mouth). Reisolation studies from the frozen stored material from these cases were strongly suggestive of laboratory contamination. Histories of the patients including therapies such as radiation, antitumor or leukemic drugs and antibiotics were received.
The fine structure of eosinophiles, plasma cells and macrophages in the allergic nasal mucosa were studied by electron microscopy. The eosinophiles contained many granules with multiple crystals, eccentrically located nuclei, small Golgi apparatus, occasional GER and dispersed free ribosomes. The plasma cells showed structures comparable to the cells in the normal tissue, being filled with closely spaced GER and occasional mitochondria. Villous surface folds, which partly exhibited a reticular pattern, were quite frequently observed. The macrophages were considerably variable in shape, showing pseudopodia with many villous folds on the surface. Many pinocytotic and/or coated vesicles and occasional cup-like indentations were seen adjacent to the plasma membrane. Very close associations of eosinophiles with plasma cells and macrophages were commonly observed in the present specimens. It seems likely that these features represent a part of the defense reactions against foreign antigens in the connective tissue of the nasal mucosa.
Some active subtance was extracted from the bovine brain. We named this substance as “Substance R” because of its relaxing effect on the intestinal smooth muscle. This substance caused relaxation of the guinea-pig taenia coli, which was not prevented by tetrodotoxin, nor by adrenoceptor blocking agents. These results may indicate that this substance is different from catecholamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine or adenosine nucleotides.
The present investigation was undertaken to know the effect of food ingestion on adrenal cortical secretion. In conscious dogs adrenal venous blood was collected before and after ingestion of food (boiled beef) and analyzed for 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). The adrenal 17-OHCS secretion rate before the ingestion of food was 0.04-0.25μg/ kg/min. After the food ingestion it was increased only slightly and transitorily, the maximal secretion rate being 0.36-0.55μg/kg/min.
In most canine excised and cross-circulated A-V node preparations phenylephrine induced a monophasic long-lasting positive dromotropic effect, and in some a triphasic response, i.e., positive-negativepositive dromotropic one. The negative dromotropic response was abolished by phenoxybenzamine and also blocked by l-hyoscyamine. Then, the triphasic response was converted to a monophasic positive one which was blocked by 1-alprenolol.