Intestinal obstruction (IO) induces bacterial translocation (BT) due to mucosal disruption, motility dysfunction, and increased intestinal volume, leading to bacterial overgrowth. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of octreotide acetate (OA) and Saccharomyces boulardii (SB) on the BT and intestinal integrity in an animal model of intestinal loop obstruction (LO). Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were randomized into 4 groups containing 10 rats each. Complete IO was created in the distal ileum of rats by a single 3-0 silk suture (LO). Group Sham: Sham (Laparotomy only was performed in this group); group LO: LO; group OA: LO plus OA (100 μg/kg, at 0, 12 hours of obstruction); group (SB): LO plus SB (800 mg/kg/day, via orogastric and preoperative for 3 days). After 24 hours, samples of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, spleen and blood were obtained and cultured. The terminal ileum specimens were examined histopathologically. There were no BT in group Sham, but BT was noticed totally in 31 (77.5%) cultures in group LO. This rate was reduced to 30% (n=12), 10% (n=4) in the groups OA and SB respectively. Bacterial translocations of MLN and the liver in group LO were significantly higher than those of groups OA and SB. Bacterial translocations of the both spleen and blood in group LO were significantly higher than those of groups OA and SB. The mean bacterial counts, colony-forming units per gram tissue (cfu/g), in the MLN, liver and spleen of group LO were found significantly higher than those of groups OA and SB. The mean villus height in group OA was significantly higher than that of group LO and it in the group SB significantly higher than those of groups LO and OA. The present experimental study has demonstrated that OA and SB may have protective effects against BT in mechanical bowel obstruction and additionally SB preserves intestinal mucosal integrity.
PUVA describes the treatment of patients with psoralens plus an exposure to a source of UV light of 320-400 nm (UVA). Contradictory results have been reported on the chromosomal damage of PUVA when assayed by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) method. Micronucleus (MN) test is used to detect both clastogenic (breaking) and aneugenic (abnormal segregation) effect of physical/chemical agents on the chromosomes. No data have been found on the MN formation in the cells of PUVA treated patients. Frequency of micronuclei in 72 hours cultivated/mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes of patients have been evaluated at zero time and after 20, 40, 60 sessions of PUVA treatment. While the beginning MN frequency was ∼0.22% (n=23), it raised to ∼0.32 (n=23), ∼0.42 (n=14) and ∼0.53% (n=10) corresponding respectively to 20, 40 and 60 sessions. These sessions correspond reciprocally to 54±23, 172±48, 300±61 joules/cm2 of UVA and 13, 26, 39 mg/kg of 8-metoxypsoralen (8-MOP). While large interindividual variances were apparent, highly significant differences have been observed between initial MN frequency and after that of the 20, 40 and 60 sessions, (p=0.000, p=0.004, p=0.005, reciprocally, Wilcoxon two-related samples test). The coefficient of correlation between MN frequency and UVA doses starting from zero to 60 sessions of treatment has been found as r=0.61. This indicates a significant relationship between UVA doses and MN frequencies. However, MN inducibility and synergistic property of 8-MOP with UVA should be taken into account. Gradual MN increase during different sessions of PUVA treatment shows that -once appeared-, a part of MN at least persist in the cells of patients from a few days to a few weeks. Smoking as a confounding factor seems to increase MN frequency (p=0.053, Mann-Whitney U-test) in the beginning population, taken as the control population. This is the first report on the kinetics of MN formation during different sessions of PUVA treatment. Based on our results, we concluded that PUVA treatment causes a detectable chromosome damaging effect on the relatively profound cells/tissues of its human users. Therapists should be careful with its use, especially on the patients who may be more susceptible to carcinogenesis (e.g. immunosuppressed and/or elderly subjects).
The response to thermal injury is a complex physiologic process requiring communication between sites of injury and distant target organs. The liver, one of these target organs, synthesizes a family of secretory proteins, the acute phase proteins, that carries out specific immunoprotective functions. In this study we investigated the effects of daily recombinant human interleukin-1α (rhIL-1α) administration on the serum levels of negatively regulated, i.e., albumin and Gc-globulin and positively regulated, i.e., α1-antitrypsin, acute phase proteins in a murine model of thermal injury. Adult CF-1 female mice underwent a 6.5-seconds, 20% total burn surface area, full thickness steam injury, and received either intraperitoneal rhIL-1α(20 μg·kg-1·day-1) or diluent for 10 days. Seven and 14 days after injury, mice were sacrificed, and serum albumin, Gc-globulin and α1-antitrypsin levels were measured by crossed immunoelectrophoresis technique. Thermal injury significantly lowered serum albumin levels, tended to decrease Gc-globulin levels, and increased serum α1-antitrypsin levels. Daily rhIL-1α administration after burn injury prevented hypoalbuminemia, and increased serum levels of Gc-globulin and α1-antitrypsin. IL-1 therapy might be helpful to maintain the homeostasis and immunity of the host after thermal injury.
In order to estimate the physiological responses to heavy muscular exercise with dynamic knee extension, the levels of urinary variables such as bicarbonate, urinary pH and blood lactate were studied before and after the exercise. Nine male volleyball players aged 19 or 20 years were involved in the present study. They performed 10%, 30% and 80% 1 repetition maximum (RM) knee extension. The levels of urinary bicarbonate and urinary pH did not change for 2.5 hours after cessation of the exercise with 10% 1 RM load, compared with the baseline levels. When 30% 1 RM loading was given, urinary bicarbonate and pH moderately increased for 2.5 hours. When 80% 1 RM loading was given, both urinary bicarbonate and pH increased immediately after cessation of the exercise, for 2.5 hours. Levels of blood lactate increased extensively within 1 minute after cessation of the exercise in the subjects with 80% 1 RM load, but no significant increase was seen in subjects with 10% 1 RM load. The changes in urinary bicarbonate and pH could be explained by the continuous production of CO2 in the muscular tissues involved in the exercise with a submaximal load where excess postexercise oxygen consumption is accelerated. It is also possible that the liver and muscle where blood lactate is aerobically metabolized could be the cause of these changes. It was also suggested that the measurement of urinary bicarbonate and pH may be useful for the estimation of events in the body after submaximal exercise loading.
We report a rare case of solitary fibrous tumor of the parotid gland. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 3-year-history of left-sided subauricular swelling. Computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance images revealed a well-defined and dumbbell-shaped mass, measuring about 30 mm in its greatest dimension, in the left parotid gland. Because the tumor occupied both superficial and deep lobes of the gland, she underwent total parotidectomy with preservation of the facial nerve. The microscopic finding showed short-spindle and ovoid cells arranged in a haphazard pattern with interspersed thin collagen fibrils. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for CD34, bcl-2 and vimentin, whereas stains for S-100, cytokeratin, smooth muscle actin, collagen type IV and CD117 (KIT) were negative. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as solitary fibrous tumor. Her post-operative course was uneventful, and she is currently free from disease 14 months after surgery. Diagnosis, clinical behavior and treatment of solitary fibrous tumor are reviewed from perusal of the literature.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E treatment on increased oxidative stress in rats exposed to a swimming exercise protocol. In order to examine the effects of physical swimming training on the antioxidant defences of tissues and on their susceptibility to damage induced by exercise, the levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) levels, on indicator of lipid peroxidation in various tissues, have been determined. In this study, four groups of female rats were used while the rats were trained to swim for 30 minutes a day and five days a week which lasted eight weeks and vitamin E (vit. E) supplementation (30 mg/kg/day) has been carried out for five days a week. TBARS levels are significantly found lower in both trained and sedentary vit. E supplemented groups, since vit. E is the most important antioxidant in an earlier line of defence in lipid peroxidation. Also, in vit. E supplemented trained rats, the glutathione response is observed to be significantly higher, supporting with the TBARS levels and in accordance with the literature. But in the sedentary group without vit. E supplementation, the GSH levels of the liver and the heart tissues were significantly lower than both vit. E supplemented sedentary and trained groups. These results evaluate that vit. E confers protection to GSH levels in these tissues where the GSH levels were found significantly lower in the groups not supplemented with vit. E.
Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation. Primary PSCs can be subcultured only several times because of their limited growth potential. A continuous cell line would be valuable in studying molecular mechanisms of these pancreatic disorders. The aim of this study was to establish an immortalized cell line of rat PSCs. PSCs were isolated from the pancreas of male Wistar rats, and the simian virus 40 T antigen was introduced to PSCs by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. This procedure yielded an actively growing cell line, designated as SAM-K. This cell line has been passaged repeatedly for almost 2 years, and is thus likely immortalized. SAM-K cells retained morphological characteristics of primary PSCs, and expressed α-smooth muscle actin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, type I collagen, fibronectin, and prolyl hydroxylases. The level of p53 expression was very high in SAM-K cells. Proliferation of SAM-K cells was stimulated by serum and platelet-derived growth factor-BB. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activated nuclear factor-κB, activator protein-1, and three classes of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAP kinase. IL-1β induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, both of which were abolished in the presence of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a specific inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB activation. IL-1β-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was partially inhibited by specific inhibitors of MAP kinase kinase (U0126) and of p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) whereas intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was not altered by the inhibitors. Thus, SAM-K would be useful for in vitro studies of cell biology and signal transduction of PSCs.