Intradermal injection of nicotine dissolved in normal saline in a concentration of 10-5g/ml produced axon reflex pilomotion, which was observed as goose flesh on the flexor surface of the forearm in human. The skin temperature was changed by immersing the forearm in a water bath at 22 to 45°C. When the skin temperature was neutral as 32.5°C, goose flesh appeared at about 5 sec and reached its maximal spread at about 25 sec, then it became smaller and disappeared at 1 min 30 see. When the skin temperature was lower, its onset was delayed and its duration was longer. At higher temperature, time course of goose flesh was shortened. With a device of controlling temperature of receptor and effector portion independently, it was found that enhancement of goose flesh at lower temperature was due to a nature of the effector and the responsiveness of the receptor to nicotine was constant in a range from 20 to 40°C. Reaction of the receptor to temperature was pharmacologically similar to that of autonomic ganglion.
The time courses of change in renin activity after cold storage of human plasma at -5°C and pH 7.4 were examined in 5 normal subjects, 6 patients with essential hypertension and one female patient with primary aldosteronism before and after extirpation of the adrenal tumor. In the 5 normal subjects and 6 essential hypertensives, the gradual increase in plasma renin activity was observed until 10 days of cold storage. The same result was obtained in the case of primary aldosteronism. However, there was no increase in renin activity despite of cold storage for 10 days in plasma which was sampled from this patient 45 days after operation. These data indicate that a period of 4 days for cryoactivation of human plasma renin as has been reported by Sealey et al. is not sufficient to accomplish activation of renin by cold storage.
Fifty relatives of 7 families with high prevalence of obesity were investigated and the possibility was shown that there were three forms of familial obesity - normoinsulinemic obesity. hyperinsulinemic obesity and diabetic obesity. In normoinsulinemic obesity, both glucose tolerance and plasma lipids were normal with a few exceptions whereas in hyparinsulinemie obesity, mild glucose intolerance and manifest hyperlipidemia, and in diabetic obesity, blunted insulinogenic index and more advanced glucose intolerance with slight hyperlipidemia existed.
To investigate the interrelationship between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and prostaglandin system, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone concentration, urinary sodium excretion, urinary prostaglandin E excretion and blood pressure were determined before and after administration of indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, during sodium depletion with furosemide administration and low sodium diets in 11 patients with essential hypertension. With the addition of indomethacin, plasma renin activity decreased from 52.9±8.6 ng/ml to 8.5±1.3 ng/ml, plasma aldosterone concentration from 20.4±3.7 ng/100 ml to 5.4±1.3 ng/100 ml, and urinary prostaglandin E excretion from 330.1±58.8 ng/day to 168.8±32.8 ng/day. Significant positive correlation was found between the change of plasma renin activity and that of urinary prostaglandin E excretion (r=0.73, p<0.01). The addition of indomethacin did not produce any significant change in urinary sodium excretion (from 78.0±10.6 mEq/day to 61.2±11.6 mEq/day); whereas indomethacin administration diminished the hypotensive effects of furosemide administration and low sodium diets. The present results show that renal prostaglandin E may be one of the regulators of renal renin release, and that the use of indomethacin, an antiinflammatory drug frequently prescribed in recent years, may diminish the hypotensive effects of furosemide and other diuretics.
A new sialic acid-containing oligosaccharide has been isolated from urine of a patient with a type of mucolipidosis newly recognized by Orii et al. (1972). This compound was found to be composed of galactose (2 moles), mannose (3 moles), N-acetylglucosamine (3 moles) and sialic acid (2 moles). On the basis of the results of sequential glycosidase digestion, of methylation analysis, and of the Smith degradation, the structure of this oligosaccharide was elucidated as follows: NeuAcα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-3 [NeuAcα2-6Gal β1-4GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-6]Manβ1-4GlcNAc. The increased excretion of this oligosaccharide may be caused by the impaired metabolism of glycoproteins having N-glycosidic linkage.
Transureteroureterostomy was performed in 32 adult dogs, and the results were evaluated by electroureterographic, roentgenographic and histological investigations. The results revealed no significant ill effect on ureteral and renal functions, indicating the procedure to be quite reasonable and clinically acceptable.
6, 349 surgical cases of bronchogenic carcinoma collected from 48 institutions in Japan were analysed, and the following results were obtained: 1) The rate of pneumonectemy to lobectcmy was 1:4.5 in 2, 437 cases of curative operation, 1:2.0 in 1, 399 cases of semicurative operation, and 1:2.5 in total. Cases of pneumonectcmy were more on the left side, whereas cases of the right lobectomy were about twice as much as cases of the left one. 2) Postoperative empyema occurred in 178 cases (2.8%). The incidence was significantly higher in cases of the right pneumonectomy than in cases of the left pneumonectomy, and in cases of pneumonectomy than in cases of lobectomy. 3) Out of 114 patients who had suffered from postoperative empyema before 5 years or more, 15 died within 30 days. The incidence of hospital death increased as the clinical stage or the grade of curability worsened. 4) Five-year survival rate of the patients who had suffered from postoperative empyema was 50% in 34 cases of stage I, 44% in 25 cases of stage II, 19% in 32 cases of stage III, and nil in 5 cases of stage IV; and, 59% in 32 cases of curative operation, 58% in 19 cases of semicurative operation, and 9% in 45 cases of noncurative operation. As a whole, the rate was 35% in all 96 cases excluding 15 cases which died within 30 days and 3 other cases of unknown TNM classification. This rate was about the same as the average of the 6 previously reported results. The total of both figures is significantly higher than that of 1, 258 cases collected from the National Cancer Center Hospital and 3 other representative hospitals in Japan. Accordingly, it appears that postoperative empyema has a favorable influence on the survival of the patients.
Urinary neutral oligosaccharides of various connective tissue diseases were studied by gel-filtration through Sephadex G-10 after treatments with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), Dowex 50 (H+ form) and Dowex 1 (Cl- form), in succession. Increased excretion of urinary glucose-containing oligosaccharides, specifically glucosylgalactose was observed in most of the patients with chondrosarcoma, rheumatoid arthritis, Werner's syndrome, Rothmund Thomson syndrome and Morquio's disease. However, urinary excretion of neutral oligosaccharides in the patients with osteosarcoma and other tumorous conditions, and some systemic disorders in the connective tissues, examined in the present study, showed almost normal values. It is indicated, therefore, that the activity of glucosidase is insufficient for the glucose-containing oligosaccharides produced from the ground substance(s) in the former type connective tissue diseases.
88% of asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers and 97% of HBsAg positive patients with chronic hepatitis or non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed high titers of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). A high titer of anti-HBc, thus suggested to be an indicator of persistent hepatitis B virus infection, was found rarely in seronegative patients with chronic hepatitis, non-alcoholic cirrhosis, or alcoholic liver diseases. It was not revealed in idiopathic portal hypertension or Budd-Chiari syndrome. In asymptomatic HBsAg carriers of 20-29 years of age, hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) was significantly more frequently found in males than in females. There were differences in sex ratio, age, and history of blood transfusion between B type and non-B type of chronic hepatitis and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in normal human plasma and urine were compared after fractionation by exactly same procedures, employing perchloric acid (PCA)-fractionation, phosphotungustic acid (PTA)-fractionation, and Dowex 1 (chloride form) column chromatography, in succession. The resulting fractions were then examined by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membrane and by digestion with chondroitinases AC and ABC. Following differences were found between the fractions from plasma and urine: 1) plasma contained macromolecular GAG (proteochondroitin sulfate A and hyaluronie acid), which were absent in urine; 2) most of plasma glycoproteins (or glycopeptides) (GP) and GAG were associated with much larger peptides than the corresponding ones from urine; 3) proportion of GP to GAG in plasma was much larger than that in urine; 4) yield (mg/liter) of each subfraction obtained by Dowex 1 column chromatography of GP and GAG from plasma was higher than that of the corresponding one from urine; 5) degree of sulfation of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate(s) in plasma was higher than that in urine. On the other hand, following similarities were observed: 1) plasma and urine contained substantially identical GAG, partially degraded chondroitin sulfate(s), as the major GAG, which were eluted with 1.25 M NaCl from Dowex 1 column; 2) corresponding subfractions from 1.25 M Fr to 2.0 M Fr obtained by Dowex 1 column chromatography from plasma and urine contained GAG giving similar or identical bands on electrophoretograms on Separax (cellulose acetate membrane), and these GAG were susceptible to chondroitinases. The present study indicates that GAG in plasma and urine are very heterogeneous. Moreover, it is suggested that two types of GAG are present in plasma, one is macrcmolecular GAG similar to tissue GAG, and another is partially depolymerized and desulfated GAG similar to or identical with urinary GAG. The latter may be excreted directly into urine.