Dietary fiber intake was estimated by the total food duplicate method, using a computerized system for fiber calculation recently developed by this study group. Collection of food duplicates were conducted twice, once in 1979-83 and then in 1990-95, in 20 sites across Japan. Altogether 294 and 384 nonsmoking, nonhabitually drinking adult women offered the samples, in the first and second survey, respectively. The average intake of total fiber was 20.7 g/day in the first study, and it was 18.7 g/day in the second survey with a significant reduction. Soluble fiber accounted for 18 to 19%, and the reduction was more marked in soluble fiber than in insoluble fiber. There was an inter-regional difference in fiber intake which was more evident in the first survey than in the second; farmers in Okinawa took less soluble, insoluble and total fiber than in Hokkaido and Honshu farmers and also urban residents. Throughout the four groups, the leading fiber sources were vegetables, followed by cereals, fruits and pulse in the decreasing order. Intakes of these foods diminished during the two survey period, and the reduction of fiber from cereals was most evident in Honshu and Okinawa farmers. International comparison showed that the current level of fiber intake in Japan is essentially similar to the levels in Europe and USA, despite the long-term trend of reduction.
We investigated hypoxic effects on cholesterol metabolism in cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells (BEC), aortic endothelial cells (AEC) and aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from rat. In control conditions, acid lipase activities in BEC and AEC were higher than that in VSMC. Acyl-Coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activities in control cells of BEC and AEC were lower than that of VSMC. Hypoxic treatment caused decreased acid lipase activity. ACAT activity decreased in VSMC. High pressure lipid chromatography (HPLC) study showed that hypoxia caused decreased contents of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters especially in AEC. We suggested that there is different cholesterol metabolism in the hypoxic treatment among endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.
Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) was compared with Caldwell-Luc (C-L) operation based on blood loss during surgery, operation time, period of hospitalization and complications. Both blood loss and operation time were significantly reduced in ESS as compared with C-L operation. In addition, patients undergoing ESS resulted in discharges after surgery earlier than those undergoing C-L operation. Minor complication was seen in 4.8% of the ESS patients whereas no major complication was recognized. ESS is a relatively safe procedure with superiority over C-L operation.
We investigated the expression and distribution of laminin in Lewis lung carcinoma LL2-Lu3 cells. The microscopic immunofluorescence study of the non-permeabilized cells and blotting assay after immunoprecipitation with anti-laminin antibodies of biotinylated cell surface proteins demonstrated that LL2-Lu3 cells retained laminin on their cell surfaces. This laminin was atypical in that it lacked A chain as revealed by the immunoblot analysis. The results of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method indicated that LL2-Lu3 cells contained mRNA for B1 and B2 chains, but not A chain corresponding to those of typical laminin derived from murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma. A precursor form of 67 kDa laminin receptor protein was also shown to exist on the surfaces of LL2-Lu3 cells. These findings suggest that the interaction between atypical laminin and the precursor form of the 67 kDa laminin receptor protein on the cell surfaces may function in regulating cell activities such as metastasis of LL2-Lu3 cells.
One hundred and ninety-five outpatients in pre-dialysis period served as subjects. The mean age of subjects was 58.0±11.2 (range: 29-82) years. The subjects were divided into 8 groups according to their serum creatinine (Cr) levels (Cr≤1.0, 1.0<Cr≤2.0, 2.0<Cr≤3.0, 3.0<Cr≤4.0, 4.0<Cr≤5.0, 5.0<Cr≤6.0, 6.0<Cr≤8.0, and Cr>8.0 mg/100 ml). The levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) decreased in accordance with the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). Even in subjects with 1.0<Cr≤2.0 mg/100 ml, the levels of 1,25(OH)2D were significantly lower than those in subjects with Cr≤1.0 mg/100 ml. The levels of calcium adjusted by serum albumin levels (adjusted Ca) were relatively maintained within the normal range until Cr>8.0 mg/100 ml. The levels of inorganic phosphate (IP) were significantly lower in subjects with 1.0<Cr≤2.0 mg/100 ml, but significantly higher in subjects with Cr>4.0 mg/100 ml than those in subjects with Cr≤1.0 mg/100 ml. The levels of immunoreactive high-sensitive parathyroid hormone (HS-PTH) were greatly increased and the levels of intact PTH were significantly increased even in subjects with 1.0<Cr≤2.0 mg/100 ml, in association with a decrease in levels of 1,25(OH)2D, suggesting that a decline in 1,25(OH)2D production due to a decrease in renal mass contributes to the acceleration of secondary hyperparathyroidism. When the levels of adjusted Ca, intact PTH and 1,25(OH)2D of subjects with hypophosphatemia (IP<2.8 mg/100 ml), normophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia (IP>4.4 mg/100 ml) were compared, there were not any significant differences in the levels of adjusted Ca among these subjects in each group. But, the levels of 1,25(OH)2D in subjects with hypophosphatemia were significantly higher than those with normophosphatemia in groups with Cr≤2.0 mg/100 ml, and those with hyperphosphatemia were significantly lower than those with normophosphatemia in groups with 3.0<Cr≤4.0, 5.0<Cr≤6.0 and Cr>8.0 mg/100 ml. These results suggest that increased secretion of PTH might compensate the decreased production of 1,25(OH)2D3 by lowering phosphate in the early phase of CRF, and phosphate retention inhibits the activity of 1α-hydroxylase and contributes to the decrease in 1,25(OH)2D3 in the advanced stage of CRF. Monitoring of 1,25(OH)2D is considered to be vitally important for diagnosing the 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency in CRF.
As dystrophin protein, the protein product of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, represents only 0.002%∼0.03% of the total muscle proteins and human dystrophin protein has not been purified, quantitative estimation of this protein has been difficult. We describe a sensitive, reliable and convenient “two-antibody sandwich” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using commercially available monoclonal antibodies. This system, using a capture antibody specific for carboxyl terminus and two different detection antibodies for the mid-rod domain and the amino- terminal domain, is highly specific for dystrophin, since muscle specimens from DMD patients gave almost zero response (n=3, 0.38∼0.45%; expressed as a percentage of normal muscle tissue). This assay should prove to be an accessible and useful tool for the diagnosis of DMD/BMD and for the evaluation in clinical trials such as myoblast transfer and gene therapy.
We could prepare the microsomal fraction of mouse liver, without using an ultracentrifuge but with a low speed centrifuge. The procedure includes 1) lyophilization of post-mitochondrial fraction (9,000× g supernatant) of mouse liver, 2) powdering of the lyophilized sample, 3) the addition of 1.15 per cent potassium chloride solution or distilled water, which afforded microsomal aggregates, 4) sedimentation of microsomal fraction by low-speed centrifugation (20,000×g, 20 mm). The sedimented microsomal fraction showed normal contents of cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5, and gave a normal pattern on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and normal electron microscopic feature. This method should be convenient for rapid and large-scale preparation of microsomes, especially for the preparation of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P-450.
It was originally claimed that left hand use on line bisection tasks reduced the extent of left neglect by Halligan and Marshall. However, in a following study, the same research group failed to reproduce this left hand amelioration effect if the left hand was initially placed on the right side, and they claimed that spatio-motor cueing was more important in reducing unilateral neglect than the hand used. The present study concerns with the validity of these two theoretical views on modification of unilateral neglect, i.e., hemispheric activation and spatio-motor cueing. A patient with left unilateral neglect and a slight left hemiparesis participated in three experiments. Under conventional testing condition, line bisection performed with the right hand showed more severe left neglect than when performed with the left hand. These hand effects were modified by changing a starting position of the patient's hand when bisecting horizontal lines. However, under body-fixed condition, effects of hand-used as well as starting position were again significant. The results suggest that not only spatio-motor cueing but also differential hemispheric activation can exert a profound effect on unilateral neglect.
We describe a 12 year-old male patient with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, in whom infusion of arginine alone dramatically improved intercurrent hyperammonemia. The plasma glutamine level also decreased while the urea nitrogen level increased with arginine infusion, indicating that accumulated nitrogen was metabolized to urea in response to the arginine infusion.