In order to introduce Electroureterography-through-cystoscope into the clinical urology, three types of electrodes were produced: ‘simple’, ‘bridge type’ and ‘U-loop’ collar electrodes. Experiments were performed with the electrodes on both animal and human subjects. 1) Satisfactory electro-ureterogram (E. U. G.) was recorded with all three types of electrodes in canine ureter. 2) E. U. G. recording with ‘simple’ and ‘bridge type’ failed in human subjects. 3) With ‘U-loop’ electrode E. U. G. was recorded satisfactorily in both human and canine ureters. The wave pattern was similar to those by Sleator and Butcher, and Shiratori et al. The action potentials measured were 0.4-1.2 mV in amplitude with an average of 0.73 mV; 0.53-1.0 sec. in duration, average 0.70 sec.; 6.8-57.5 sec. in discharge interval, average 19.3 sec.; 22.2-33.3mm/sec. in conduction velocity, average 31.1mm/sec.
Changes in plasma renin were examined on 9 patients without hypertension, 6 with benign essential hypertension and 3 with malignant hypertension before and during dietary salt depletion. In the former 2 groups of patients, renin levels elevated during salt deprivation. On the other hand, in the last group renin showed decrease. It was noted that in the former groups basal renin was within normal range, but in the latter increased. These findings suggest that increase in aldosterone in normal and benign essential hypertension under sodium depletion may be caused by increased renin-angiotensin. Furthermore, it was considered that the basic mechanism of renin secretion in malignant hypertension may be different from that of normotension and benign essential hypertension. Appropriate expalanation of this difference is not yet obtained.
Many attempts have been made to identify cultured cells by many in-vestigators. Now the ideal medium or physiological maintenance medium (Eagle), which will enable cultured cells to maintain the same characteristic properties as in vivo, has not yet been invented. The idea on which many experiments for identification are based should be reexamined. Since the cells cultured in various media are usually much altered in their morphology, stainability and many other characters, the identification always involves theoretical difficulties. Therefore, a new method for identification of cultured human placental cells should be devised. In this experiment, the author tried to identify trypsin-released human placental cells and discussed on the separation method of the identified cells.
Chemical studies on the metabolism of glucose, fructose and glycogen in human chorionic villi are reported with the following conclusions: 1) In chorionic villi the level of glucose was the mean value between that of the maternal blood and the fetal blood. The level of fructose was three times as high as that in the fetal blood. 2) Chorionic villi convert glucose into fructose. The best conditions for the conversion were as follows: to keep the glucose level at 125mg/dl in the incubation solution, to keep the pH at 7.4, to have the temperature at 37°C, and to perform the experiment under saturated oxygen. The chorionic vim play an important role in the conversion of sugar in the placenta. 3) The rapid trans-portation of glucose in chorionic villi does not occcur through simple diffusion mechanism, but through biological action in connection with the sugar metabolism in chorionic villi. 4) Human full term placentae have stronger activities in decomposing than in synthesizing glycogen. 5) Sugars in chorionic villi are convertible to each other, such as the schema, glycogen_??_glucose_??_fructose, following changes of environmental condition. The anther stresses the existence of a regulation mechanism for the passage of sugar through the placenta. This mechanism might be called the metabolic regulation system.
In the summer of 1961, an outbreak of aseptic meningitis caused by Coxsackie B5 virus and to a lesser extent, by Coxsackie A9 virus took place in Aomori City and the adjacent rural communities. A total of 417 patients with aseptic meningitis in the epidemic were studied clinically and epidemiologically. Peak incidence was observed in July to August. Most patients distributed in infants and children under 10 years. The morbidity rate under 15 years of age was more than 500 per 100, 000 persons. The predominant clinical manifestations of this outbreak were aseptic meningitis. However, one pleurodynia caused by B5 virus and one fatal case of uncertain etiology were found. No paralytic poliomyelitis was observed during the epidemic period. No significant differences were noted between the clinical features of aseptic meningitis caused by B5 virus and those by A9 virus, except that abdominal pain was more predominant in the former. Laboratory findings revealed significant elevation of amylase levels in serum and/or urine in 30.9% of the cases with B5 virus infection and 23.0% of the cases with A9 virus infection. This suggested that pancreatic involvement was not rare in the infections caused by either B5 or A9 virus.