Intrahepatic bile ducts in the vicinity of the porta hepatis were histologically investigated in 9 cases of biliary atresia and the pattern of bile duct was divided into two groups. In the first group, there were a few large bile ducts which had continuity to the extrahepatic bile duct. In the second group, many small bile ducts were histologically observed, but there was no large bile duct at the ports, hepatis. This type of abnormal bile ducts was seen in the cases of obliteration of bile ducts at porta hepatis.
The matrix proteins of human plantar horny layers were extracted with deoxycholate, purified and examined with the light and electron microscopes, and their histochemical characteristics were investigated. About 44.3% of the total proteins was released into the 270, 000×g supernatant fraction, following incubation with deoxycholate, and the precipitate obtained by dialysing this supernatant fraction consisted of fine granular materials which were found to be electron dense, round material under the electronmicroscopy. Small electron dense dots were seen on the surface of this material. This pellet was positive with Pauly's reagent, toluidine blue and Harris hematoxylin-eosin. However, the material further purified by the molecular sieve chromatography was negative with Pauly's reagent. And it had been proved to be of keratohyalin granules origin by the indirect immunofluorescent study. Another protein fraction which was obtained by the molecular sieve chromatography was positive with diazotized sulfanilic acid and showed tinctorial properties as kerato-hyalin granules show in vivo.
The three dissimilar structural antidepressant drugs, imipramine, nomifensine and d-amphetamine, were compared for their effects on type B monoamine oxidase, cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and dopamine-β-hydroxylase. Three antidepressant drugs caused a dose-dependent inhibition on type B monoamine oxidase. Of the three drugs, imipramine had a most potent effect. Unlike d-amphetamine, both imipramine and nomifensine inhibited the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity at concentrations more than 10-4M. No effect was observed below this concentration. All drugs seemed to have little or no effects on the partially purified dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity. The weak inhibitory effects of nomifensine on these three enzymes may not be attributable to its antidepressant properties. Morphine had no effect on the three enzyme activities.
In order to determine the plasma level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) in Japanese children by the competitive protein binding assay, we studied binding proteins in D-deficient rats, and obtained the following results. 1) By using serum and kidney cytosol of D-deficient rats, we could obtain a standard curve with high sensitivity and accuracy which enabled us to determine the 25-OH-D3 level ranging from 0.5 to 5.0ng. 2) The plasma 25-OH-D3 level was found to be 21.6±10.1ng/ml (n=17) in healthy infants and children from 1 to 15 year-old, and 11.4±8.6ng/ml (n=27) in mature neonates up to 2 days after delivery.
The effect of pentazocine on the coronary hemodynamics was studied in anesthetized dogs. Under pentobarbital anesthesia pentazocine did not cause any significant changes in the coronary hemodynamics. Under chloralose-urethane anesthesia, however, it produced a statistically significant increase in heart rate, left coronary blood flow rate, myocardial oxygen consumption as well as myocardial oxygen extraction rate, but a decrease in coronary vascular resistance. These results indicate that the effects of pentazocine on the coronary hemodynamics are modified significantly by the drugs used for basal anesthesia.
Effects of octopamine on sinus rate and atrial contractility were investigated using the isolated atrium preparation of the dog which perfused with heparinized arterial blood led from a support dog. When octopamine, dopamine or norepine-phrine was administered into the cannulated sinus node artery, positive chrono-tropic and inotropic responses were dose-relatedly induced from 0.1μg, 0.1μg or 0.01μg, respectively. The D. R. 50 values (dose ratio at 50% maximum response) of octopamine, dopamine and norepinephrine are roughly 30-100: 30: 1, respectively. The duration of action of octopamine was longest. Effects induced by octopamine were blocked by an adrenergic beta-blocking agent, alprenolol. Desmethyl-imipramine treatment significantly suppressed octopamine-induced effects but rather enhanced norepinephrine-induced ones. Octopamine-induced effects were not influenced by tetrodotoxin which blocked those induced by nicotine. From these results, it is concluded that positive chronotropic and inotropic responses to octopamine are mainly due to a tyramine-like action.
Café au lait spots from 14 Japanese patients with neurofibromatosis and nevus spilus from 9 Japanese patients were subjected to the studies on the differences in nature of their melanocytes. When the number of melanocytes of the pigmented lesions was compared with that of the surrounding normal skin, the former was always increased and that of café au lait spot was higher than that of nevus spilus. Giant pigment granules were recognized only in 6 patients out of 14 with neurofibromatosis but not in nevus spilus examined. 2 days after UV irradiation at 4 MED, the number of melanocytes was increased in both surrounding normal skin and pigmented lesion, and the rates of increase were lower in the pigmented lesion. Under the electron microscope, melanocytes in cafe au lait spots which received an ultraviolet light irradiation showed various changes in their cytoplasm ; a development of dendrites containing many mature melanosomes, an increased number of cytoplasmic vacuoles and mitochondria, a development of Golgi apparatus in their cytoplasm, appearances of some dense-bodies and of autophagosomal melanosome-complexes. In nevus spilus, the same kind of changes occurred, but they were moderate com-pared with those developed in cafe au lait spots. Melanosomes in the keratinocytes of café au lait spots tended to come together around the nucleus and to form melanosome-complexes; while, melanosomes in the keratinocytes of nevus spilus seemed to be single-dispersed after irradiation. The causative factors of the hyperpigmentation and the different reactivity of melanocytes against UV irradiation in these two pigmented macules were discussed.
Changes of serum LH (HCG) and FSH, and their response to LH-RH during pregnancy and puerperium were studied by radioimmunoassay. There was little change in serum FSH level due to progression of pregnancy, and the serum FSH level of pregnant women was almost unchanged after injection of LH-RH. Serum LH (HCG) which decreased rapidly after delivery returned at about 15 days after parturition, and FSH which remained at a low level during pregnancy returned to the levels in the follicular phase of the normal women at about 20 days after delivery. The alteration in the response to LH-RH in puerperal period was as follows: First FSH began to respond about 10 days after delivery, and one month after parturition both LH and FSH showed remarkable response in comparison with that in the normal non-pregnant period. Beyond the second postpartal month, the response of FSH returned to approximately the same level as that in the normal non-pregnant period, but the response of LH was still marked when compared with that in the non-pregnant period. There were no differences in the response to LH-RH between the nursing and non-nursing women.
Fifty-three patients with pulmonary neoplasm were studied by radioaerosol inhalation and perfusion lung scans, bronchoscopy and spirometry. The probability of lymph node metastases could be estimated by the amount of inhaled aerosol deposited at the carina. On thoracotomy, actual mediastinal lymphadenopathy was minimum, if any, in 4 patients without carinal aerosol deposition. Application of the aerosol inhalation lung scan to pulmonary neoplasm provides useful diagnostic and prognostic information regarding mediastinal lymph nodes metastases.
Immunodiffusion of antigen from conic and cylindrical wells of various sizes in thick antiserum gel plate was studied. The shape of precipitate was affected by the shape and size of the well and by the antigen weight. In the test of anti-rabbit serum agar plate, albumin concentration ranged from 2 to 25mg/ml, and the maximal albumin weight was 15.8 times the minimal one. In this case, regression line and standard deviation (s. n.) were calculated from antigen weight (x) and standardized data (yl) of precipitate volume, and from antigen weight and standardized data (y2) of precipitation ring area, and the following results were obtained: y1=0.006x-1.611, s. D.=0.092 for the former and y2=0.005x-1.546, s. D.=0.295 for the latter. In the test of agar plates containing anti-carbonic anhydrase B (CA B), the maximal concentration and weight of CA B was 16.7 times and 18.3 times the minimal one, respectively. In this case, regression line and standard deviation obtained from the CA B weight (x) and the standardized data (y3) of the precipitate volume, and from the weight (x) and the standardized data (y4) of the precipitation ring area were as follows: y3=0.146x-1.754, s. D.=0.208, and y4=0.104x-1.251, s. D.=0.717, respectively. There was a clearer linearity in the relationship between the precipitate volume and the antigen weight than in that between the ring area and the antigen weight. In the gel medium, antigen concentration gave no influences on antigen quantitation at the end point of antigen diffusion in a wide range.
The monkey with removal of the inferotemporal cortex (IT monkey) showed a marked impairment of discrimination between a pair of visual pattern stimuli, which consisted of different patterns on the identical background plaques. The present study showed that an IT monkey, unlike an unoperated normal monkey, performed discrimination with utilizing a partial cue within the whole configuration of pattern stimuli. In contrast to a general concept, the present finding appears to raise a question as to whether the IT monkey can perceive or identify visual pattern.