In order to clarify the adequacy of peripheral vein injection site for recording the dye-dilution curve, ante-cubital vein (ACV) and femoral vein (FV) injection curves were compared in 32 cases without intracardiac shunt or regurgitation. Coomassie blue dye was injected into ACV and FV alternately at intervals of 5min and the dye-dilution curve was recorded by an ear densitometer. Ninety seven curves of ACV injection and 84 of FV injection were compared. Mean transit time (-t) and time constant of downslope (ts) were significantly larger and peak concentration (Cp) was significantly lower in ACV curves than in FV ones, although appearance time (ta), build-up time (tap), peak concentration time (tp) and concentration area (Area) were not different between both injection sites. Concerning the reproducibility of ACV curves, differences of ta, tp and -t between the n-th and (n+1)-th measurements were within 5 per cent on the average, those of Cp and Area were larger and ts was the largest. There was no significant difference of reproducibility on any parameters between ACV and FV curves. Thus, it is concluded that cardiac output can be measured identically in either of ACV and FV curves and distortion of downslope in ACV curve may lead to over-estimation of left-to-right shunt and regurgitation fraction.
In six normal adults changes of cardiac rhythm and urinary excretion of catecholamine were studied under mental work and physical exercise. The mental tests consisted of continuous mental calculations, and the physical tests involved the active extension and contraction of legs. Cardiac rhythm during the tests was recorded continuously by means of Matsuda's cardiotachograph. In both mental and physical loads, the heart rate distinctly increased without exception, and a close relationship was observed between the strength of load and the maximum heart rate. Catecholamine levels in urine were measured before and after the mental calculations and walking, and those values were compared with each other. In the mental tests, the excretion of adrenaline was higher than that of noradrenaline, with average rate of 2.19 for adrenaline and 1.22 for noradrenaline. The increased output of adrenaline and noradrenaline in urine was also observed in the physical exercises. However, the increase in adrenaline was smaller than that of noradrenaline, that is, the average rate of adrenaline was 1.88, while that of noradrenaline was 2.25. From these findings, conclusion may be made that the mental reaction causes the release of adrenaline from the adrenal medullae, whereas physical exercise causes discharge of noradrenaline from the sympathetic nerve endings.
Changes in the cardiac output and blood flow in the renal, superior mesenteric and carotid arteries in anesthetized dogs were observed, using the noncannulating electromagnetic flow meter. Cyclic AMP, 10mg per kilogram of body weight, was given intravenously and the following results were obtained: 1) Cyclic AMP slightly decreased the heart rate, and increased the stroke volume and cardiac output. 2) Both systemic blood pressure and central venous pressure were decreased. 3) The renal blood flow decreased for the first few minutes, and increased after 10minutes, but the superior mesenteric and carotid blood flows increased. 4) Distribution ratio in the renal artery decreased for a short time, while those in the superior mesenteric and carotid arteries increased. 5) Cardiac output was depressed by propranolol (0.5mg/kg), but not enhanced by aminophylline (5mg/kg).
6-Mercaptopurine riboside (6-MPR), which is thought to be a powerful metabolic antagonist of the nucleic acid synthesis and to have a lower toxicity than 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), prolongs the survival time of skin homografts in mice when administered after grafting. Treatment must be continued to maintain graft reliability.
Kinetics of T3 and T4 were studied in a case of TBG deficiency with hypothyroidism. Serum total and free T4 of 35-year-old man were 0.6 μg/100ml and 0.54 ng/100ml, respectively. Serum total and free T3 were 18 ng/100ml and 74 pg/100ml, respectively. BMR was -27%. Thyroidal 24-hr uptake of 131I was 7%. Resin-sponge 131I-T3 uptake was 52%. Binding capacity of TBG was O. Binding capacities of TBPA measured by two different methods were 240 and 223 μg/100ml. The half-life of T4 was shortened, the T4 distribution space, turnover rate and clearance rate increased. Extrathyroidal organic iodine pool and degradation rate decreased. The half-life of T3 was slightly shortened, turnover rate, distribution space and clearance rate increased. Extrathyroidal T3 pool and degradation rate decreased. During the treatment with 75 μg/day of l-T3, the patient's complaints disappeared. When administration of l-T3 was switched to 400 μg/day of l-T4, elevated serum T3 remained higher than the preadministration level. His mother and a younger sister had decreased T4-binding capacity of TBG.
When 14C-U-maltose was injected intravenously to normal rabbits, 14C-maltose rapidly disappeared from the blood stream and circulating 14C-glucose rose gradually. In urine, 24% of total radioactivity was excreted as 14C-maltose, 6% as 14C-glucose and 12% as other 14C-compounds. In all organs 14C-glucose exceeded the level of 14C-maltose throughout the experiment for 12 hours. When maltose was administered to nephrectomized rabbits, 14C-maltose disappeared very slowly from the blood stream and the increase in 14C-glucose in blood was minimal. In the rabbits pretreated with phloridzin 14C-maltose decreased rapidly in blood and 14C-glucose did not increase. The difference between plasma maltose levels in the artery and the vein across the kidney was increased after maltose was injected to the normal rabbits, whereas the plasma glucose concentration in the renal vein exceeded that in the renal artery. In phloridzinized rabbits, the arteriovenous difference of maltose was smaller as compared with normal rabbits and plasma glucose levels in the renal vein did not exceed those in the artery. When the isolated kidney was perfused for 30minutes with maltose solution, the levels of maltose and glucose in the renal vein rose and not only maltose but also glucose were excreted in urine. Maltase activities in the cortex of the kidney were ten times as high as in the medulla. In the isolated glomeruli, however, little maltase activities were observed. These results suggest that the kidney plays an important role in the metabolism of maltose administered intravenously. The mechanism as to urinary excretion of glucose after maltose injection was discussed.
RNA was extracted from the spleen cells of the rats or rabbits which had been immunized with Yoshida sarcoma (YS-immune rats or rabbits). Twenty per cent of the recipient rats previously injected with the RNA survived against the inoculation of YS tumor cells. Allogeneic lymphoid cells were incubated with the RNA from the YS-immune rats and then transferred to the recipient rats. Eight days after the transfer, YS tumor cells were inoculated into the peritoneal cavities of the same animals. The survival rate of these recipient rats was 50%. In similar experiments, when the RNA from the YS-immune rabbits was used in the incubation, instead of the rat RNA, the survival rate of the recipient rats was 30%. Splenic RNA from the normal rats and rabbits and from the rabbits sensitized with splenic supernate of normal rats exhibited no antitumor effect. The antitumor effect of RNA derived from the YS-immune rats was lost by treatment with RNAse.
In six epileptic children who had been treated with diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, and/or mysoline, a decrease in serum diphenylydantoin levels was found in five cases on the 23 rd to 35 th day of withdrawal of phenobarbital and mysoline, among which four cases might be explained by enhanced activity of drug metabolizing enzymes which were persisting even after withdrawal of phenobarbital, and one case might be due to elimination of inhibitory action of phenobarbital upon diphenylhydantoin metabolism
Out of 49 epileptic children treated with diphenylhydantoin and phenobarbital there were 36 cases with poor or partial control of seizures, among whom 20 cases had serum diphenylhydantoin levels below 5 γ/ml and 8 cases had serum phenobarbital levels below 10 γ/ml. Thus estimation of serum levels of each of drugs has proved to be a valuable guide in management of childhood epilepsy.
Five cases of surgically removed human rectal cancer were investigated by morphometrical methods using electron micrographs, especially on the nucleus. The results of comparison between cancer cells and normal glandular cells were summarized as follows: 1) The nuclear cytoplasmic ratio and the mean volume of the nucleus in five cancer cases were larger than those of the control rectal mucosa at 5% level of significance. 2) The values of the surface to volume ratio of the nucleus in rectal cancer concentrated at 1.0. 3) In cancer the nuclear volume was remarkably large but the cytoplasmic volume was not larger than that in the control mucosa. 4) On comparison among 3 parts of the control rectal crypt, i.e., the surface, intermediate part and base, the crypt base had the highest nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, and the intermediate part had the largest mean volume of the nucleus.
An α-mycolic acid was isolated from P6, an unclassified mycobacterium, scotochromogen, and its structure was determined. This acid has a chain of 80 carbons and two rings of cyclopropane. It was found that the entire structure of this α-mycolic acid was similar to that from M. smegmatis and M. phlei.
The microvibration (MV) of the left upper eyelid was recorded by means of a MV-recording technique in normal adults with eyes closed. Electromyogram (EMG) of the orbicularis oculi muscles, apex cardiogram (ACG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were also traced simultaneously. The time- and frequencypatterns of the lid MV were obtained by the digital real-time correlator and spectrum analyzer, respectively. It was found that the lid MV of healthy awaked subjects with their eyes closed contained faster components with high amplitude probably due to changes in muscle tone of the orbicularis oculi muscles in addition to so-called ballistocardiographic components.
Isolated rat adrenal cells were incubated with corticosterone or cortisol in the presence of ACTH. When the corticosterone production in the absence of exogenous corticoids was taken as 100%, it was decreased to 77±3 and 62±4% by the addition of 1.0 and 2.0 μg of corticosterone to 1ml of incubation medium, respectively. However, the same concentration of cortisol did not show any inhibitory effect on corticosterone production.