SAKKA, M., HISAMICHI, S., TAKANO, A., HASHIZUME, T., SASANO, N. and UZUKA, Y. Mass Survey of Gastric Cancer and Leukemia in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 239-243 - A little more than 20, 000 examinees of x-ray mass survey of gastric cancer and the controls were followed up from 1960 to 1977. Cumulative doses of x-rays were calculated for each examinee, and a collective dose in person-year-rads was constructed. Incidence of leukemia was ascertained from Miyagi Prefeetural Cancer Registry. Seven cases of leukemia were found out of 242, 689 person-year-rads in the irradiated population, and 9 cases out of 273, 344 person-years in the controls. Incidence rate in the two groups was identical. Therefore, the risk of this mass survey was disproved.
WADA, Y. and TATSUMI, N. Protein from Macrophages Inhibiting Polymerizationof Actin. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 245-259 - The crude cytoplasmic extracts of macrophages showed a low actin-polymerization activity as compared with the purified actin preparations. This suggested that an actin-polymerization inhibitor should exist in the crude cytoplasmic extracts of macrophages. Thus, the isolation of actin-polymerization inhibiting protein from the crude extract was attempted. The protein with a high actin-polymerization inhibiting activity had a molecular weight of 65, 000 daltons as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in dodecyl sulfate, a Stokes radius of 33.8Å as measured by gel filtration and a sedimentation coefficient of 4.9S as determined by analytical centrifugation. The actin-polymerization inhibiting activity was much higher in 0.1M KCl than in 0.6M KCl. It was not affected by either the presence or the absence of free Ca2+. It was considered that the protein is responsible for the large proportion of unpolymerized actin in the crude extract of macrophages.
TAKAHASHI, M., SATO, T. and AKINO, T. Metabolic Changes in Scaly Lesions ofRat Skin Produced by Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 261-274 - Marked changes in the structure and metabolism of lipids were observed at scaly lesions induced in the skin of rats by the feeding for four months of a diet deficient in essential fatty acids. The concentration of neutral lipids increased in the experimental skin specimens with the exception of free cholesterol. Analysis of fatty acids in the skin lipids of these essential fatty acid deficient rats showed a marked increase in monoenoic and eicosatrienoic acids, with a concomitant decrease in linoleic and arachidonic acids. Incubation of skin specimens from the essential fatty acid deficient rats with [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]acetate showed a marked increase in the incorporation of both precursors into all lipid classes. Particularly, their incorporations into phosphatidylcholine were predominant compared to other lipid classes. With regard to the molecular species of phosphatidylcholine, saturated-monoenoic and monoenoic-monoenoic species were highly synthesized in the skin from essential fatty acid deficient animals, and the synthesis of saturated-dienoic and tetraenoic species was very low with either precursor. Significant decreases in these labelings were also noted in saturated-saturated species. Addition of prostaglandin E2 to the incubation medium did not significantly affect the metabolism of any of the lipid classes in the skin from the essential fatty acid deficient rats. The present results, therefore, suggest that phosphatidylcholine containing linoleic acid may be a key lipid in the epidermal barrier function.
HOSHIAI, H., UEHARA, S., MORI, R., NAGAIKE, F., TSUIKI, A. and SUZUKI, M. Gossypol as Oral Contraceptive for Male: Trial Case Report. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 275-280 - Gossypol has been used as oral contraceptive for man in People's Republic of China. There are also some reports of studies in which gossypol acetic acid is used in animal experiments. In this study we used tablet preparation of gossypol, which is actually used as oral contraceptive for male in People's Republic of China, on a volunteer. The administration of 20mg/day gossypol tablets for 19 days resulted in a tendency of decreasing sperm density and total sperm count, but had no effect on serum LH, FSH, PRL or testosterone. Furthermore, the volunteer had no complaints of side effects and his general laboratory findings were normal. Ten days after the termination of gossypol administration, sperm density returned to its preadministrative level. Our study suggests gossypol may be effective as a male oral contraceptive with no acute side effect.
TSUCHIYAMA, A., OYANAGI, K., NAKATA, F., UETSUJI, N., TSUGAWA, S., NAKAO, T. and MORI, M. A New Type of Hypermethioninemia in Neonates. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 281-288 - Eleven hypermethioninemic patients were found by mass screening tests of neonates. Three of these had persistent hypermethioninemic while in the others it was transient. Serum concentrations of methionine were constantly higher than those of controls, especially in the persistent group. The enzyme activities of methionine adenosyltransferase in the liver tissues of both groups of patients were within normal limits. Serum concentrations of total folate in the persistent group were strikingly elevated and fatty degeneration of the liver tissues was a constant feature. It improved after several months under a low-methionine diet. The hypermethioninemia reported here is not associated with any clinical or biochemical finding reported previously.
TSUCHIDA, S., HARADA, T., NISHIZAWA, O., KOINUMA, N., MATSUO, S. and NOTO, H. A New Modified Catheter for Voiding Cystourethrography. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 289-298 - We made a new modified catheter for voiding cystourethrography to evaluate the function of the external urethral sphincter. Using this catheter, we can evaluate it precisely, excluding the influences of the posterior urethra. The findings of voiding cystourethrography observed by using this catheter were equal to the findings of the simultaneous recording of cystourethrogram and external urethral sphincter electromyogram, and permitted us to assess the function of each portion of the urethra separately, such as the sphincteric urethra (prostatic urethra) and external urethral sphincter (membranous urethra). In addition, this urodynamic procedure can be performed safely and easily.
OHKUDA, K., OHNUKI, T., KOIKE, K., NITTA, S. and NAKADA, T. Quantitative Assessment of Water Content of Human Lung: A Study on OpenLung Biopsy Specimen. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 299-307 -Quantitative assessments of human lung water are necessary to evaluate lung water changes, but little knowledge is available about a human “normal” lung. To determine a “normal” lung water content, pieces of lung tissue were obtained from lungs which should be resected for solitary nodular lung diseases, and the water content was assessed in terms of the ratio of extravascular lung water to blood free dry lung weight (Qw1), using the gravimetric methods. Among 152 patients who underwent open thorax surgeries for their solitary nodular lung diseases, 35 lung specimens were obtained from lungs which were free from any abnormal lesions. Since the postoperative histological examination did not reveal any pathological findings except for the solitary nodules in the resected lobes of 35 patients, the 35 pieces were also considered to be “normal”. The value of Qw1 was 3.66±0.29 (mean±S.D.) g/g blood free dry lung. This value would serve as a reference of Qw1 in human “normal” lung.
OHKUDA, K., ABE, Y., OHNUKI, T., KOIKE, K., WATANABE, S., NITTA, S. and NAKADA, T. Effects of Irradiation on the Pulmonary Vascular Fluid andProtein Exchange. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 309-312 - In anesthetized sheep, ventilated by positive pressure, pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, cardiac output, and lung lymph flow (Qlym) were measured and lymph-to-plasma protein concentration ratio (L/P) was determined. Four sheep were irradiated with 60Co on the bilateral lower lobes, avoiding irradiation on the heart and the caudal mediastinal lymph node. Qlym increased during and after irradiation, and reached a new steady state (160% increase), while pulmonary arterial or left atrial pressure did not change. In 4 control experiments, pulmonary hemodynamics, Qlym or L/P did not change. Therefore the increased fluid or protein flux after irradiation cannot be ascribed only to abnormal pulmonary hemodynamics. Endothelial damages seem to play a role in the increase of fluid filtration and protein permeability.
ITO, S., YAMADA, Y., SUZUKI, T. and SHIBATA, A. Somatostatin-28-likeImmunoreactivity in the Stomach. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 313-318 - Localization of somatostatin-28 and somatostatin-14 immunoreactive cells in the human, canine and cat's stomach was studied by an indirect immunoperoxidase method using somatostatin-14 antisera and specific antisera against somatostatin-28. The somatostatin-28 immunoreactive cells belonged to the endocrine-like cells of the fundic glands and pyloric antrum of the human, canine and cat's stomach. These cells were identical to somatostatin-14 ones. Since immunocytochemical cross-reaction between specific antisera against somatostatin-28 and somatostatin-14 was not found, it was suggested that the coexistence of N-terminal amino acid sequence of somatostatin-28 and somatostatin-14 in one and the same cell seemed to be most likely. Thus, it seems probable that somatostatin-28 originally isolated from porcine and ovine tissues may be constantly present in other mammals.
OMORI, Y., MINEI, S., SAITO, M. and HIRATA, Y. Insulin-Receptor AutoantibodyDetected by the Human Placental Membrane Method: Six Patients with Insulin-ReceptorAutoantibody in Japan. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 319-328 -Insulin-receptor antibodies were detected in six patients out of 61 diabetics from all over Japan during 1975 to 1979 using the human placental membrane method. These 61 patients were divided into three categories: (1) Those whose diabetes control needed more than 80 units of insulin a day; (2) those whose fasting IRI was higher than 50μU/ml even with glucose intolerance; and (3) those who had hypoglycemia of unknown origin. Controls consisted of 11 serum samples from 11 healthy women and six diabetics treated with insulin and thus having insulin antibodies in their sera. The sera from healthy subjects did not suppress 125I-insulin binding with human placental membrane in either the direct or the preincubation method. 125I-insulin binding in the direct method was markedly suppressed, however, by the sera of insulin-treated diabetics, although no such suppression was observed with the preincubation method. In six of the 61 subjects (two males and four females), inhibition of binding was proved by both direct and preincubation methods for the protein fraction of the sera, particularly for the IgG fraction in five cases. Three of the six had Sjögren syndrome; one of these also had acanthosis nigricans. Four of the six showed insulin resistance, and two did not. A follow-up showed that antibodies decreased relatively quickly in three of the six cases, with the degree of inhibition paralleling patients' clinical courses.
HIRAMINE, C. and HOJO, K. Blastogenic Factor Production by Guinea PigB Lymphocytes Stimulated with Thymus-Dependent Antigen. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 138 (3), 329-340 - The purpose of the present paper is to determine whether antigen-stimulated B lymphocytes could produce blastogenic factor (BF) in the system of guinea pigs (strain 2) sensitized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or ovalbumin (OVA), known as thymus-dependent antigen, and, further, whether macrophages (Mψ) are required for antigen activation of B cells to produce this lymphokine. Additionally, the effect of BF on normal T and B cells was evaluated. B lymphocytes were purified by double nylon wool adherence, plastic dish adherence, Sephadex G-10 column passage and sedimentation of E rosette forming cells on Ficoll-Isopaque. KLH- or OVA-primed B lymphocytes as well as T lymphocytes could produce BF when stimulated with specific antigen in vitro, and Mψ were required for antigen activation of both T and B cells to produce BF. The optimal BF production was observed at a T or B cells: Mψ ratio of 1:0.1 (in the system of KLH sensitization) or 1:0.5 (in OVA sensitization). BF production by B cells appeared to be less than that by T cells. BF produced by B cells was able to stimulate both normal T and B cells to proliferate; the proliferative responses of normal B cells to both B-cell-derived BF and T-cell-derived BF were significantly greater than those of normal T cells to these BFs. Readdition of Mψ was not required for the T or B cell response to BF.