ARIKAWA, J., YAMANE, N., TOTSUKAWA, K. and ISHIDA, N. The Follow-Up Study of Swine and Hong Kong Influenza Virus Infection among JapaneseHogs. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 353-358 - Pigs in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan were examined for swine (Hsw1N1) and Hong Kong (H3N2) influenza virus infection by serological tests. The results obtained revealed that a swine influenza virus was prevalent with relatively high positive ratios throughout that time, and that the Hong Kong influenza virus closely related to a recent human epidemic strain, A/Yamanashi/2/77, also persisted, corresponding to a human endemic. These epidemiological findings strongly suggested the possibility of direct transmission of Hong Kong virus from humans to pigs and vice versa.
AKIYAMA, F., SENO, N. and YOSHIDA, K. Anticoagulant Activity of DermatanPolysulfates. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 359-365 - It has been found that dermatan polysulfates (DPS) I, II and III isolated from hagfish notochord, hagfish skin and shark skin, respectively, and chemically sulfated dermatan sulfate exhibit considerable anticoagulant activity in the “activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)” system. On comparing the activities with the various compositions, including disaccharide units produced by the digestion with chondroitinase-ABC, it was shown that the activity of these dermatan polysulfates depends not only on the total sulfate content but also on the content of sulfated L-iduronic acid residues. The activity seemed to decrease for molecular weight of below 10, 000. The effect of these dermatan polysulfates on the inactivation of the clotting enzymes, factor Xa and thrombin, by antithrombin III (AT-III) was also studied using chromogenic substrates for the assay of the enzyme activities. The dermatan polysulfates showed an inhibitory effect on thrombin-AT-III, as estimated by the APTT assay, in contrast with the effect on factor Xa-AT-III which was found to be very small.
DESCHAUX, P., PAUCOD, J.-C. and ARDAIL, D. Interaction between Thymosin, Testosterone and Estradiol on Natural Killer Cell Activity in Mice. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 367-372 - Thymosin fraction 5, an immunopotentiating thymic preparation, significantly increases the cytotoxic capacity of NK cells isolated from the spleen. This stimulation is inhibited by testosterone and estradiol.
BODURTHA, J., HIRAOKA, T., KOIKE, K., KOIKE, M., MORI, K., HAZAMA, R., HOSHINO, T. and NAGASAWA, M. The Density and Distribution of IntramembraneParticles in Erythrocytes from Persons with Muscular Dystrophies. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 373-377 - Intramembrane particles in the freeze-fractured faces of erythrocyte membranes from persons with several different types of muscular dystrophy are examined. The density of particles in the protoplasmic face was lower than that of controls, although not at a statistically significant level. No altered pattern of aggregation of these particles was observed.
SAITOH, Y., SASAKI, T., HIRATSUKA, M., SATO, N. and YAMANE, N. Isolation and Characterization of Mucoid and Non-Mucoid Salmonella oranienburgIsolated from Pleural Effusion of a Patient with Hemolytic Anemia. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 379-386 - Salmonella oranienburg, mucoid and non-mucoid strains, were simultaneously isolated as causative agents from the pleural effusion of a patient with hereditary spherocytosis. The mucoid-typed Salmonella oranienburg was characterized by serological examination, taking advantage of the high frequency of mucoid (M) to non-mucoid (N) variation.
NAKAMURA, S., TAKEZAWA, Y., KERA, K., SATO, T., NAKAMURA, M. and MAEDA, T. Survival of and Hepatoma Development in Patients with LiverCirrhosis. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 387-389 A follow-up study was made on 75 patients with liver cirrhosis. The patients were divided into 5 groups (discontinued alcoholic group, continued alcoholic group, hepatitis B group, male non-alcoholic non-hepatitis B group, and female non-alcoholic non-hepatitis B group). Hepatoma developed in 50% of the hepatitis B group, but in 1-9% of the other 4 groups. Abstinence did not accelerate the development of hepatoma. As for survival after onset of liver cirrhosis, the 1-4-year survival of the female non-alcoholic non-hepatitis B group and the final (8-year) survival of the hepatitis B group appeared to be lower than that of the other groups. Though the survival of the discontinued alcoholic group was seemingly higher than that of the continued alcoholic group, the difference was small and not significant.
UEDE, T., ISHII, Y., MATSUURA, A. and KIKUCHI, K. Thy-1 Antigen onRat Bone Marrow Cells: Immunochemical and Fine Morphological Studies. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 391-404 Immunochemical and fine morphological studies were conducted to clarify molecular characteristics of Thy-1 antigen on rat bone marrow cells and cell types expressing Thy-1 in rat bone marrow. For this purpose, a xenoantiserum highly specific for Thy-1 was prepared by immunizing rabbits with partially purified Thy-1 glycoprotein from rat brains. This antiserum reacted with approximately 90% of thymocytes, 10% of spleen cells, 30% of bone marrow cells and less than 2% of lymph node cells in normal rats, and the similar reactivity of this serum was also observed with spleen, lymph nod eand bone marrow cells obtained from congenitally athymic (rnu/rnu) rats. The anti-Thy-1 serum used in this study, as well as anti-asialo GM1, showed cytotoxic effect on natural killer (NK) cells in rats, suggesting that rat NK cells, un like thosecells in mice, express both Thy-1 and asialo GM1. Immunoelectron microscop icobservation performed on Thy-1 positive rat bone marrow cells showed that Thy-1 was expressed on immature cells ancestral to erythrocytes or granulocytes and on possible pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells as well as on bone marrow lymphocytes. It seems likely that an inverse relationship exists between Th y-1expression and maturation of rat bone marrow cells including erythrocytec, granulocytic and lymphocytec cell series. Thy-1 antigen defined by our antiserum on rat bone marrow cells appears to be a sialoglycoprotein with 24K molecular weight, which could be labeled by periodate-tritiated borohydride. The same antiserum precipitated a 27K molecular weight sialoglycoprotein from rat thymocytes, which was regarded as the same molecular species as the 24K molecular weight glycoprotein on rat bone marrow cells on the basis of data obtained from absorption studies.
NISHINARI, S. Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes of Red Blood Cells in SurgicallyTreated Hyperthyroidism. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 405-411 Red blood cells of 22 patients with hyperthyroidism and 4 recurrence cases were fractionated into 2 groups of young and old red cells with Ficoll 400. Carbonic anhydrase B (CA B) and C (CA C) of each of young and old red cells were measured by means of single radial immunodiffusion. CA B levels of young and old red cells of untreated patients were 4.8±1.8 (mean±S.D.) mg/g Hb and 5.6±1.8mg/g Hb, respectively. After administration of methimazol for about one month, the CA B level of young red cells slightly increased (7.0±1.8mg/g Hb), then the patients were submitted to subtotal thyroidectomy. CA B levels of young (12.0±1.8 mg/g Hb) and old red cells (9.4±1.8mg/g Hb) were not normalized one month after the treatment though high levels of serum thyroid hormone rapidly decreased after the operation. A period of 2 to 6 months was further required to return to normal levels of young (15.2±1.7mg/g Hb) and old red cells (15.1±1.6mg/g Hb). Although almost all the investigators reported that CA C did not diminish in hyperthyroidism, CA C levels of young and old red cells were 78 per cent and 88 per cent of the normal levels, respectively.
TOMITA, H., SOGAWA, H. and WATANABE, A. Congenital SecondaryHypothyroidism with Low Serum GH and Prolactin Levels in a 27-Day-Old MaleInfant. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 413-418-A male infant with secondary hypothyroidism is described. Within the first month after birth, the patient manifested feeding difficulties, lethargy, persistent jaundice, umbilical hernia, and large anterior and open posterior fontanels. The roentgenogram of the knee joints at 27 days showed absence of the distal femoral epiphyses. His serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was low despite decreased levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) in serum. Assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary function showed neither TSH or prolactin responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) nor growth hormone (GH) responses to L-arginine and insulin, while responses of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to insulin were within normal limits. The malady of the patient in this case was not detected by newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism due to the fact that in the Aomori district of Japan thyroid screening involves only the measurement of TSH. Such measurement cannot detect cases of secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism such as our patient. Replacement therapy was initiated at 58 days and his physical and mental development has been regarded as normal since treatment.
KIKUCHI, R., SASAKI, T. and TAKISHIMA, T. Disappearance Curves andSingle-Breath DLCO from Consecutive Samples during Slow Expiration. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 419-431-The disappearance of CO in three expirates consecutively sampled after various breath holding periods was measured in seven normal subjects. The CO disappearance curves in the three expired portions were nearly linear and parallel each other, but the curves for later sampled expirates were lower, and even those for earlier sampled expirates passed under unity at time zero when extrapolated on a logarithmic graph of relative expired alveolar CO concentration against breath holding time. The slope of each disappearance curve shows “the true diffusing capacity at breath holding lung volume”, eli minatingan effect of rapid CO absorption at a lower lung volume during expiration. This effect is considered the cause of the downward shift of the decay curve, and the shift is magnified in slow expiration. In addition, the three parallel lines indicate a homogeneous distribution of DL/VA within the lungs. Subsequently DLCO in conventional calculations had greater values in shorter breath holding time and later sampling.
YAJIMA, A., SATO, A., MORI, T., WAKISAKA, T., SATO, S., SUZUKI, M., TESHIMA, K. and NODA, K. Progression to Malignancy of Severe Dysplasia of the Uterine Cervix. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 433-438 In the follow-up studies of dysplasia of the uterine cervix, the rates at which 691 cases of mild and 654 cases of severe dysplasia progressed to malignant lesions were, respectively, 0.3% (2 cases) and 17% (111 cases). A classification of the cases of severe dysplasia was made according to the degree of maturation of the lesion into immature, premature and mature dysplasia. The rates of progression to malignancy for these three types were 28.4%, 16.7% and 5.9%, respectively. In cases of carcinoma in situ progressing from immature dysplasia, 74.4% of such cases were of the small cell type, whereas in cases progressing from mature dysplasia, 85.7% were of the large cell type. The similarity in site of the lesion within the cervix was particularly notable between immature dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the small cell type.
CHIBA, T. and KASAI, M. Studies on Recovery of Liver Function of OperatedBiliary Atresia. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 439-446-Serial liver function studies were analyzed in 42 biliary atresia patients who had underone portoenterostomy. Values for serum bilirubin, ZTT, TTT, and gamma globulin returned to normal levels three months after operation in patients with good bile excretion. These tests remained abnormal in those with poor bile output. Alkaline phosphatase and serum transaminase values remained high during the earlypostoperative period, requiring a much longer duration to return to normal. The biological activity of sulfobenzyl penicillin (SBPC) in the serum and bile was determined by serial broth dilution in 15 children with biliary atresia. Eleven patients were studied 10 days to 2 weeks after an apparent successful portoenterosotomy while four others were clinically well and anicteric three to four years postoperatively. The biliary concentration of SBPC was very low despite good bile output during the early postoperative period. The SBPC levels increased three times during the remote postoperative period. The bile concentration of SBPC is lower than normal, however, and it seems that the ability of the liver to excrete this material may never reach normal levels despite apparent good clinical hepatic function.
OHNEDA A., K.OBAYASHI, T. and NIHEI, J. Plasma Insulin Response to VariousSecretagogues in Insulinoma. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 447-457-Since the development of radioimmunoassay for insulin, the diagnosis of insulinoma has been made easily. However, it has been assumed that insulinoma is heterogenous in the histological structure as well as in clinical findings. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the insulin response to various stimuli and to evaluate the various insulin response tests in 19 patients with insulinoma. The fasting blood glucose was 19 to 90mg/100ml in insulinoma and 81+5 (mean± S.D.) mg/100ml in normal controls. Plasma insulin (IRI) in insulinoma ranged from 10 to 255μU/ml, while in the control it was 14+9μU/ml. However, insulin/blood glucose ratio increased in insulinoma (0.2-11.2) compared with the normal control (0.18+0.11). In oral glucose tolerance tests, plasma IRI increased and reached peak levels of 48-244μU/ml, remaining elevated in most cases. In the intravenous tolbutamide test, plasma IRI increased conspicuously to 82-1, 330μU/ml and hypoglycemic coma was provoked in 54%. Plasma IRI was elevated in the intravenous glucagon test and reached the peak levels of 85-400μU/ml, which exceeded those of the control group. Plasma IRI increased to more than 100 μU/ml after arginine infusion and formed bizarre curves. There were no correlations between plasma IRI response to various stimuli and malignancy, type of B-granule or insulin content of insulinoma tumors. It is concluded that fasting plasma IRI, insulin/glucose ratio, tolbutamide test and glucagon test are highly valuable for the diagnosis of insulinoma.
TORINUKI, W., KUMAI, N., MIURA, T. and SEIJI, M. Effect o f Beta-Carotene onUltraweak Chemiluminescence of UVB-Irradiated Squalene. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 459-460-An emission spectral analysis was carried out on chemiluminescence emitted from UVB-irradiated Squalene, The main emission species produced by the transition of (1Δg) (1Δg) and (1Δg) (1∑g+)to (3∑g-) (3∑g-) were found by spectroscopic analysis of the chemiluminescence. When beta-carotene was added to the irradiated squalene, its spectral pattern changed drastically and many peaks disappeared.
SAITO, T., YAMAKAGE, K., KUROSAWA, K., KYOGOKU, Y., FURUYAMA, T. and YOSHINAGA, K. The Effect of Protamine on Proteinuria and Glomerular Sclerosis inAminonucleoside Nephropathy. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 461-462-An administration of protamine sulfate combined with aminonucleoside of puromycin (AN) could produce in rats severe nephrotic syndrome and histological changes similar to focal glomerular sclerosis more distinctly than AN alone. This may be attributed to the action of protamine which seemed to enhance the effect of AN, causing polyanion loss at the glomerular basement membrane.
TANNO, Y. and TAKISHIMA, T. Enhancing Effect of Saccharated Ferric Oxideon Human Lymphocyte Transformation in Serum-Free Medium. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (4), 463-464-The effect of saccharated ferric oxide on the response of human peripheral lymphocytes to stimulation by phytohemagglutinin in serum-free medium was studied by measuring the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA. The addition of saccharated ferric oxide resulted in a significant increase in [3H]thymidine uptake not only with mitogen added, but also without mitogen, suggesting that this compound itself was mitogenic.