The purpose of this study is to analyze our treatment experience on patients with ascending aortic aneurysms, with aortic regurgitation. From January 1974 to December 1995, 49 patients underwent replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta with a composite graft, in which primary operation cases were 44 and reoperation ones were 5. The Bentall technique was used in 20 patients, the button technique in 11, the interposition graft technique in 11, and a combination of the interposition graft and button technique in 7. All but one reoperation cases underwent the interposition graft technique. Hospital mortality was 30% for the Bentall technique, and 9.1% for the button technique and 9.1% for the interposition graft technique; there was no hospital mortality in the combination of the interposition graft and button technique. Hospital mortality of interposition graft technique in primary operation cases was 9.1%, and that in reoperation cases was 0%. Hospital mortality in patients underwent from 1974 to 1985 was 30.8%, 27.8% from 1986 to 1991, and 0% from 1992 to 1995. Five late deaths occurred in the Bentall group (35.7%) and one late death in the button technique (9.1%). No late deaths in the other groups have occurred. In summary, operative mortality in Bentall technique group was higher than that of the other groups. Operative results were improved by the change of operative methods. The interposition graft technique is preferable for patients undergoing reoperation or when tension on the ostial anastomoses may occur. The button technique is best for patients with aortic dissection or inflamation involving the coronary ostia.
This study was designed to investigate localization of ABH antigens on the inner surface of human tooth hard tissues. The tooth samples, extracted therapeutically, were cut and dried at room temperature for a few weeks. Scanning electron microscopic observation disclosed that the inner surface was exclusively covered with the odontoblastic zone and virtually no blood vessels remained in the samples. Blood group activities of the tooth fragments, which were detected with absorption-elution test, were markedly decreased when the odontoblastic zone was scraped off. To visualize the activity, the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunostaining was performed on the odontoblasts of fresh teeth followed by embedding. Decalcification process was omitted to preserve the antigenicity. Group specific colorization was successfully developed on the cell surface of the odontoblasts. Immunoreactivity of the cell membrane of the odontoblast including the odontoblastic process was also confirmed by immuno-transmission microscopic observation. On the other hand, localization of epitopes on intrinsic dentine without cell components could not be visualized. The results of these experiments indicate that the odontoblasts are one of potent sources of blood group antigenicity for blood grouping of the human teeth.
The objective of this study was to develop new techniques for the cryopreservation of washed spermatozoa. Two media (Ham's F-10 and nonthermoprecipitated TEST-yolk buffer [NT-TYB]) containing 7% (v/v) glycerol were compared to semen cryopreservation by adding glycerol directly to the semen. Twenty four men collected a semen specimen each after 4 days of sexual abstinence via the use of a semen collection device at intercourse. Specimens were assessed for volume (ml), count (×106), percentage and grade of motility, morphology (% normal) and acrosomal status (% intact acrosomes). Each ejaculate was split into 3 aliquots (Aliquots 1 to 3) and processed for freezing. Aliquot 1 was prepared for cryopreservation by adding glycerol (7% [v/v] final concentration) directly via a dropwise mode. Aliquot 2 and 3 were diluted 1 : 1 (v/v) with Ham's F-10 and NT-TYB, respectively. Aliquots 2 and 3 were then centrifuged (400×g for 10 minutes) and resuspended into the corresponding media containing 7% (v/v) glycerol to complete the sperm wash procedure. All aliquots were frozen in 0.5 ml french straws. Sperm specimens were frozen in liquid nitrogen (LN2) vapor from +23°C to −68°C at a slow rate (2.3°C/minute), after which the specimens were plunged directly into LN2 and stored for 30 days. The quality of the spermatozoa were monitored throughout each step of the overall procedure by measuring the motility characteristics of the spermatozoa. Straws corresponding to each aliquot were thawed in a water bath at 37°C for 2 minutes, followed by assessment of sperm motility and acrosomal status. The percentage of motility after thawing was 31.6±5.6%, 32.8±1.8% and 37.3±1.9% in Aliquots 1 to 3, respectively. Similarly, the grade of motility was 2.4±0.2, 2.6±0.1 and 3.0±0.1 in Aliquots 1 to 3, respectively. The acrosomal status (% intact acrosomes) in Aliquots 1 to 3 was 41.2±2.6, 43.1±3.6 and 51.6±4.5, respectively. The results suggest that the characteristics of spermatozoa washed and frozen in NT-TYB (Aliquot 3) were improved over those spermatozoa prepared via direct addition of glycerol to the semen (Aliquot 1) or by using Ham's F-10 (Aliquot 2). The most significant reduction noted during freezing was in the loss of acrosomal integrity. The results obtained in this study point out that washed spermatozoa can be cryopreserved with some success and that the recovered spermatozoa could be used for intrauterine insemination in an artificial insemination program using husband's or donor sperm, or for the various assisted reproductive technology procedures. It is the opinion of the authors that the information generated in this study is of importance for those scientists and clinicians involved in the handling and manipulation of cryopreserved spermatozoa.
Little is known about the clinicopathologic features of mp colorectal cancer, defined as a cancer where the depth of invasion is limited to within the mucosa, the submucosa and the proper muscle. This study was designed to determine the clinicopathologic features of mp colorectal cancers. From 1973 to 1993, 83 mp colorectal cancer and 66 sm colorectal cancer patients were treated in our department and were enrolled in this study. During the same period, 66 patients with sm colorectal cancer defined as a cancer where the depth of invasion is limited to within the mucosa and the submucosa, were treated. The clinicopathologic findings of these patients were determined retrospectively from their hospital records. Clinicopathologic differences in sm and mp colorectal cancers were compared with sm and mp gastric cancers. The incidence of mp colorectal cancer increased from 7.9% in 1973-1977 to 16.2% in 1988-1993. An advanced macroscopic appearance, a larger tumor size, lymph node metastasis and lymph vessel invasion were more predominant in mp than sm colorectal cancer. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that these clinicopathologic factors were not statistically independent prognostic factors for mp colorectal cancer patients. There was no statistical difference in postoperative survival between sm and mp colorectal cancer patients. Mp colorectal cancer should be defined as early colorectal cancer, because the postoperative survival rate does not differ between mp and sm colorectal cancers, and the clinicopathologic differences between these two are negligible.
Down's syndrome (DS) has the highest incidence among chromosomal disorders and is a predisposing factor in acute leukemia pathogenesis. DS patients are sensitive to both physical and chemical inducers at the DNA level. Studies on β-carotene, an antioxidant, suggested that there is a relationship between high β-carotene diet and reduced tumor incidence in humans indicating that β-carotene is a chemopreventive agent against cancer. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is known as a sensitive parameter among the genotoxicity tests. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vitro effect of β-carotene on SCE frequencies in 7 DS patiens and 7 healthy controls aged between 0-16 years. A direct leukomogenic agent Mitomycin-C (MMC) was used as a powerful SCE inducer. Addition of MMC to the cultures alone resulted in a significant enhancement of SCE frequencies in both groups when compared to the spontaneous values. In the study, β-carotene seemed to decrease MMC induced mean SCE/cell values, but did not have an effect on unstimulated cells. As this is a limited study, it is hard to conclude that β-carotene is a chemopreventive agent in DS patients, although our results seem to support other investigators' reports.
Height and weight of 6th year-grade children in primary schools and the 3rd year-grade children in junior high schools have been recorded in Sendai in every October since pre-World War II days, and the secular trends of the annual gains in the measures were compared among the latest three decades of 1965-74, 1975-84 and 1985-94. Acceleration and then reduction in acceleration in growth were observed in the first and the second decade, respectively, and such were followed by reacceleration in the latest 10 year-period. The three-phased changes were most evident in height and weight of primary school children of both sexes, whereas less clear or unclear among children in junior high schools.
To clarify the serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in patients with renal diseases, we examined 281 patients with various renal diseases with or without systemic disease (including 197 patients without systemic diseases and 84 patients with systemic diseases). The sIL-2R level was significantly higher in patients with renal diseases, than in healthy volunteers. In the group of renal diseases, the sIL-2R level in patients with rapidly progressive nephritic syndrome was especially higher than in patients with other renal diseases. In patients without systemic diseases, the serum level of sIL-2R was significantly and positively correlated with the urinary excretion of protein, and the serum levels of creatinine and uric acid, and was negatively correlated with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the patients with systemic diseases, the correlation between the serum levels of sIL-2R and the serum levels of creatinine or GFR were not as strong as observed in the patients without systemic diseases. The serum level of sIL-2R was outside the normal range in patients with systemic diseases with a serum level of creatinine above 2.0 mg/100 ml. These findings suggest that the serum levels of sIL-2R in patients with renal disease may increase and correlate with the impaired renal function, that he increased sIL-2R levels in patients with systemic diseases may be dependent on the activity of systemic disease, and that it may be not useful indicator of diseases activity in patients with systemic diseases when the serum level of creatinine was above 2.0 mg/100 ml.
In the guinea-pig vas deferens, isoprenaline (ISO) can exert significantly enhanced effects on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel current carried by Ba2+ (IBa) via β-adrenoceptor activation. Voltage-dependent Ba2+ (IBa) and K+ currents (IK) were recorded in the preparation voltage-clamped in a Krebs solution replaced Ca2+ by Ba2+ (Ba2+ solution) of 36°C. At a holding potential of −40 mV, ISO markedly increased IBa evoked by depolarizing pulses, whereas it also increased IK at a holding potential of −20 mV so as to inactivate Ca2+ channel. This ISO-induced enhancement of IBa seems to be contradictory to the suppression of contraction by β-adrenoceptor activation in normal Krebs solution.