The present investigation was attempted to know the influence of bleeding on the adrenal noradrenaline and adrenaline contents of the cat. Noradrenaline and adrenaline contents of the adrenal gland were estimated by the permanganate method of Suzuki and Ozaki. After the bleeding of two-fifths of the total blood quantity a decrease in adrenaline content of the adrenal gland was found. However, there was no modification of adrenal noradrenaline content. In cats, in which the bleeding of two-fifths plus one-fifth of the total blood quantity was performed, a marked depletion of adrenaline content and a slight decrease in noradrenaline content of the adrenal gland were found.
The salt loading test was performed in 7 normal aduls, 21 patiens With essential hypertension and 15 patients with chronic nephritis with and without hypertension. After an overnight fast, 5% saline solution was injected intravenously every 2 cc. per Kg. pf body weight and the changes in plasma electrolytes, renal hemodynamics, urine volume and urinary excretion of electrolytes were observed. The saline injection provoked the increase in plasma Na and Cl con-centrations, and the decrease in plasma K concentration was more prominent in the groups of essential hypertension and chronic nephritis with hypertension and it became greater with an increase in blood pressure. A linear relationship was observed between an increase in urinary excretion of Na and increase in glomerular fitration rate which were produced by the saline injection. In the patients with essential hypertension and with chronic hypertensive glomerulonephritis, the urinary excretion of Na after the saline injection became greater with an increase in blood pressure. The present experimental results seem to indicate that hypertension promotes a urinary excretion of Na, unless any remarkable decrease in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate exists.
Responses to direct electrical stimulation were recorded at various depths in the hippocampus of the rabbit, and three types of response were distinguished according to the layers stimulated. 1. The first type of response was a spike potential evoked by stimulation at a level 0-0.2mm. beneath the ependyma. This potential may be divided into two subtypes. One was a small fast spike of about 1 msec. duration recorded at the superficial layer of the hippocampus and the other was a slow negative spike of about 2-3 msec. duration recorded most clearly at a depth 0.4-0.6mm. beneath the ependyma. 2. The second type was a slow wave evoked by stimulation at a level 0.2-0.4mm. beneath the ependyma. The wave was negative de-flection at the superficial layer of the hippocampus, and phase reversal occurred at a depth of about 0.7mm. 3. The third type was a slow wave with a spike-like potential evoked by stimulation at a level 0.6-1.0mm. beneath the ependyma. The slow wave showed a positive negative sequence at the ependymal surface and negative deflection beyond a level 0.7mm. beneath the ependyma. The negative spike-like potential superimposed upon the wave had a maximal amplitude at about 0.7mm. depth. 4. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the three types of response were investigated, their relation to the structure of the hippocampus was discussed, and the following conclusion was reached: The fast spike originates in nerve fibers in the alveus, while the slow spike and spike-like potential represent mainly activity of somata of pyramids. The close similarity of the slow wave to the so-called dendritic potential of the neocortex was pointed out.
1. The development of the anterior pituitary cells of male mice from pre-mature stage to puberty was studied histometrically. For the cell-counting, sections cut along the selected sagittal planes and stained with PAS-orange G-hematoxylin were used. 2. According to the staining property and the localization, the existence of two types of PAS-positive basophils corresponding to the beta. and the delta cells was confirmed. 3. The number of the basophils and the percentage of the acidophils showed steady rise until the end of the 6th week, while the percentage of the chromophobes fell abrest during the same period. The percentage of the basophils remained almost constant. The growth in size of the anterior lobe was also found in the younger stage before the end of the 6th week. 4. From these findings, it was pointed out that a remarkable retardation in the quantitative development of the anterior pituitary takes place at the end of the 6th week in the male mice of dd-strain.
A modification of combined carbowax-paraffin technic including a preliminary infiltration of the specimen in gelatin is presented. This gelatin-carbowax-paraffin technic yields serially arranged and firmly adhered sections which may be used for staining fat with sudan dyes.
Three cases of idiopathic hypercalcemia of infancy were presented. The present paper is the first report of this syndrome in Japan. In all the cases the typical clinical features such as anorexia, constipation, vomiting, growth failure and mental impairment were noticed. Serum calcium levels were elevated in all the cases. Nonprotein nitrogen level was elevated except in one case.
Upon examination of the multinucleated giant cells closely related with bone tissues from various angles, it was demonstrated that the socalled osteoclasts are nothing but osteoblastic cells taking syncytial form at the stages of dissolution or new formation of trabeculae and cannot be regarded as having the function of positively destroying and resorbing bone substance. Accordingly, we deem it unjustifiable to call them osteo-clasts and propose the new name of ‘bone giant cells’ for them.
Specimens from 29 cases of giant cell tumors of bone and 42 cases of other bone tumors were pathohistologically examined, with emphasis on the relationship between the multinucleated giant cells and the fibrous stroma in them. The results were summarized as follows: The giant cell tumor of bone is an osteogenic tumor characterized by the appearance of multinucleated giant cells constituting a cellular osteoid tissue, with the grade of malignity indicated by the behavior of the mono-nucleated tumor cells. With the advance of malignity, the organoid giant cells fall into hypoplasia or dysplasia, oligonucleated giant cells and those of malignant-type coming forth, and the tumor gradually takes on the histological picture of a polymorphous-cell sarcoma. Giant cell tumor tissues may be found sometimes in benign osteoma, osteofibroma and malignant osteoplastic osteosarcoma, too.
Unit discharges were recorded from the optic tract, optic radiation and visual cortex of the cat immobilized with D-tubocurarine. 1. Three response types, “on” “on-off” and “off”, were distinguished at pre- and postgeniculate levels. The discharge rate was found to be decidedly low at the postgeniculate level as compared with that at the pregeniculate. 2. The relation between the average frequency of impulses and log intensity of illumination was generally sigmoid in shape, but the “on” component of most “on-off” units did not show any remarkable dependence on the intensity. This component was peculiar also in that it showed a frequency minimum at a certain intensity. 3. Scotopic spectral sensitivity curves obtained at three levels of the visual pathway were almost identical, having a maximum at about 500mμ. 4. Average-frequencies of impulses plotted against wave-lengths or spectral response curves were found different from the spectral sensitivity curves, especially at higher levels of intensity of illumination. The difference was greater at the postgeniculate level, where the curve consisted of two elevations extending over 420-480mμ on the one hand and over 520-600mμ on the other. 5. The receptive fields of pre- and postgeniculate single fibres were mapped by means of an automatic device. The receptive fields of most units, pre- or postgeniculate, contracted as the intensity of background illumination was raised, but in some “on-off” units an expansion of the receptive field was observed above a certain level of adaptation.