The intravenous glucagon test was performed in 11 patients with insulinoma and the diagnostic significance of the test was studied in comparison with the glucose test, the tolbutamide test and the arginine test. The curves of plasma insulin following the intravenous administration of glucagon were markedly different and strange in those patients with insulinoma compared with the normal controls. The maximal levels of plasma insulin ranged from 85 to 400μU/ml, exceeding the normal range in 10 out of 11 patients, or 91%. Increased levels in the maximal plasma insulin were observed in 63%, 100% and 56% through the glucose test, the tolbutamide test and the arginine test, respectively. The distribution of the insulin areas, calculated from the insulin curves during these tests, was shown to be similar to that of the maximal levels of plasma insulin. There were no significant correlations between the maximal levels of plasma insulin in the glucagon test and the glucose test, the tolbutamide test or the arginine test. The present experiment demonstrated that the intravenous glucagon test, next to the tolbutamide test, caused a large increase in plasma insulin, and therefore, that this test is one of the most useful tools among the provocation tests, for the diagnosis of insulinoma.
All children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection showed a significant response in IgG immunofluorescent (IMF) antibody titers, which were similar to that of complement-fixing (CF) antibody titers. However, there was a certain degree of variation in IgM IMF antibody response and its persistence. This variation also occurred in cases with pre-existing specific antibodies and good CF and IgG IMF antibody titers. Thus, it was considered that a reinfection with M. pneumoniae might not have an important effect upon the individual variation in IgM immune response, and that after a secondary immune response with M. pneumoniae infection the specific IgM antibody could be detected in some patients.
A radioimmunoassay method for ileu-5-angiotensin I was applied to the measurement of plasma renin in rabbits. In the present method, the volume of plasma sample, required for the determination of plasma renin activity and plasma renin concentration, could be reduced to 0.6 ml and 0.05ml, respectively. A satisfactory correlation (r=0.918) was found between the plasma renin activity measured by our bioassay method reported previously and that by the present radioimmunoassay method in each of 25 different plasma samples. A highly significant correlation (r=0.968) was also observed between the plasma renin activity and the plasma renin concentration, both of which were measured by radioimmunoassays, as far as renin concentration remained under 200ng/ml/hr. On the other hand, the present results appear to indicate that, when a high plasma renin activity was obtained, it was difficult to evaluate the actual plasma renin concentration. Therefore, it would be necessary to be cautious to apply the method for plasma renin activity on the renin rich plasma.
The effect of pentazocine on lymphocyte transformation induced by PHA was studied in vitro by observing the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into nucleic acid of the lymphocytes. Pentazo-cine in therapeutic concentrations was shown to inhibit lymphocyte transformation.
A total of 17 metal elements (Ag, Al, B, Bi, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Si, Sn and Zn) were identified by spectroanalysis of various gallstone specimens. In the pure pigment stone which is characterized by black appearance, the metal elements were more various in sort and the spectra of respective elements were more intense than in the calcium bilirubinate stone and the cholesterol stone. As compared with other gallstones, the pure pigment stone contained Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn at higher concentrations, as determined by semiquantitative analysis, and on incineration yielded more ash. Concentrations of Ca and Mg seemed to parallel the ash content of gallstone, while Cu and Fe did not show such a tendency and were relatively specific to the pure pigment stone irrespective of ash content. These results indicate that metal elements, particularly Cu and Fe, play a role in the formation of black substances of the pure pigment stone, possibly as complex compounds with bilirubin derivatives.
Methods to separate and collect gastric mucosal cells of the rat using proteolytic enzymes were devised. Pronase (1.0%) achieved better results than did trypsin (2.0%) in collecting single isolated cells with higher cell yields and viability. The cells dissociated with trypsin retained glandular structures as in situ. The measurement of radioactivity revealed that the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into generative cells was highest in the cell suspension collected by the second 15 min dissociation. It was concluded that the most effective method to obtain dissociated cells from the generative zone of the mucosa is to collect the cells dissociated with 1.0% pronase continuously for a period from 15 to 45 min after the start of dissociation. On autoradiographic analysis with 3H-thymidine, the ratio of generative cells was 10%, approximately 3 × 106 cells, in the specimens.
Histometrical estimation of scar tissue was made on 30 human hearts obtained at autopsy in order to know possible correlations between aging and scar tissue in the heart muscle. Estimation was made on histological specimens of the anterior wall of the left ventricle and the posteromedial papillary muscle, according to Chalkley's point counting method, and the amount of scar tissue was expressed in percentage. The mean percentages were 3.11, 5.26 and 9.24 in the epicardial, endocardial parts of the left ventricle and the papillary muscle, respectively. There were very significant differences between these 3 mean percentages. There were very significant correlations between the percentages of scar tissue in these 3 parts and ages. From these results, it is concluded that the scar formation increases in the heart muscle with aging.
Pure pigment stones, a minor variety of gallstones characterized by black appearance, were analyzed by infrared absorption spectroscopy. The spectra of these stones resembled those of calcium bilirubinate in position of respective absorption bands, but they were smoother in general aspect than spectra of usual calcium bilirubinate stones. From this and other findings the main constituents of the black stones have been identified as polymers of bilirubin derivatives. It was also revealed spectroscopically that the stones were associated with carbonate and/or phosphate of calcium at an incidence of 65 percent, and that they were less commonly associated with organic bile components such as cholesterol, bile acids and fatty acids than calcium bilirubinate stones. In order to quantitate “smoothness” of the spectrum, the quotient Q was calculated from intensity readings at three determined positions, including 1624 cm-1 at which the absorption is due to pyrrole rings of bilirubin. The “smoothness” was found to correlate well with “blackness” of the stone, Q being less than 0.30 for 91 percent of pure pigment stones and over 0.30 for all specimens of calcium bilirubinate stone and synthetic calcium bilirubinate.
Three patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria accompanied by chronic renal lesions were studied. All the cases had histories of severe hemolytic anemia and repeated hemoglobinuria. The biopsy specimen of the kidney of two patients (Case 1 and Case 2) showed interstitial nephritis. Renal glucosuria, tubular proteinuria, increased urate clearance (Case 2) and reduced tubular reabsorption of phosphate (Case 3) were revealed in Case 2 and Case 3, suggesting renal tubular impairment. From the nephrological point of view, hemodynamic alteration resulting from intravascular hemolysis and severe persistent chronic anemia may primarily be responsible for the renal impairment.
The pharmacological effects of 1-Sar-8-Ile-angiotensin H on blood pressure and plasma renin activity (PRA) were studied in 5 normal subjects and in 19 patients with hypertension of various etiologies including malignant hypertension, renovascular hypertension, essential hypertension, and primary aldosteronism. Intravenous administration of this peptide induced a significant pressor response in normal or low PRA subjects at infusion rates of 100-600ng/kg/min. Similar pressor response was also observed in renovascular hypertensives with normal PRA who were cured later by surgical treatment. The blood pressure in high PRA group was lowered remarkably by infusion of this angiotensin II inhibitor. A significant increase in PRA was obtained in subjects with malignant hypertension following the infusion of this peptide. However, there was no detectable rise in PRA in other subjects with normal or high PRA. The present data show that circulating angiotensin II plays an important role in maintaining high blood pressure in high PRA patients, especially in malignant hypertension, while it is not directly involved in the maintenance of high blood pressure in human chronic renovascular hypertension.
Acid mucopolysaccharides in mast cell granules were histochemically studied in the lesion of urticaria pigmentosa and in the dermis of normal human skin. Alcian blue and azure A were used to stain mucopolysaccharides. Bromphenol blue was employed for detection of basic proteins. In a further attempt to identify various polyanions, staining was carried out with alcian blue containing various concentrations of electrolytes. Methylation, saponification, and digestion with streptomyces or testicular hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC, sialidase, or desoxyribonuclease were also employed. The results obtained are most likely to suggest the presence of hyaluronic acid in mast cell granules.
The direct effects of adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and dibutyryl adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (D-CAMP) on renal blood flow were studied in dogs under renal perfusion with constant pressure. Cyclic AMP caused a marked phasic decrease in renal blood flow in doses more than 1 mg, while D-CAMP produced a slight increase in that in doses more than 10mg. The vasoconstrictive effect of cAMP was not blocked by the pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine, but was markedly depressed during the infusion of aminophylline. On the other hand, the vasodilative effect of D-cAMP was not affected either by the pretreatment with propranolol or during the infusion of aminophylline. These findings indicate that cAMP and D-cAMP have an opposite direct effect on the renal artery, independently of the adrenergic receptors. However, there may be a possibility that cAMP produces its vasoconstrictive effect on the renal artery partly through the action of its metabolites.
Sialoprotein possessing blood group activity has been usually extracted with organic solvents from red cell membrane. To obtain the blood group substance under milder condition, the author presented carboxymethyl (CM) cellulose column chromatography with eluents of phosphate buffer containing 1% Brij 35. Red cell stroma was applied onto the column with an equal volume of 0.0175 M phosphate buffer pH 6.3 and one-fifth volume of 0.05% 2-mercaptoethanol in 1% Brij 35. Separation of the substance was performed by stepwise elution with three kinds of phosphate buffers. Serological assay showed that only the first fraction eluted with 1% Brij 35 in 0.0175M phosphate buffer pH 6.3 had ABH and MN blood group activities and the other fractions obtained with buffers of higher molarities had not such activities. Sialic acid was also detected only in the first fraction, and the majority of proteins of the stroma was found in the other fractions.