ISHIKAWA, K., KANAMASA, K., YAMAKADO, T. and KATORI, R. The BeneficialEffects of 40% and 100% O2 Inhalations on Acutely-Induced Myocardial Ischemiain Dogs. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 107-117-The effectiveness of O2 inhalation on the acutely-induced ischemic myocardium in dogs was investigated. In 22 open-chest mongrel dogs, the left anterior descending coronary artery was partially occluded to reduce coronary flow. The regional coronary vein accompanying the artery was cannulated to obtain coronary venous blood. Switching of inspiratory gas from room air to 40% O2 produced an elevation of coronary venous O2 saturation from 35.8±12.7 (S.D.) to 41.1±11.9% and shifting of myocardial lactate production to utilization (from -0.9±36.9 to 5.0±36.7%), indicating that 40% O2 inhalation ameliorated ischemia. Application of 100% O2 inhalation caused even more beneficial effects; coronary venous O2 saturation was elevated to 50.6±12.6% and myocardial lactate extraction was improved to 7.8± 40.5%. The present study indicated that 40% O2 inhalation was effective and 100% O2 inhalation even more effective in ameliorating acutely-induced myocardial ischemia. Decreases in myocardial contractile force and left ventricular size and suppresion of sympathoadrenal activity might be possible mechanisms for these beneficial effects.
KIMURA, H., TATSUMI, K., KURIYAMA, T., SUGITA, T., WATANABE, S., NISHIBAYASHI, Y. and HONDA, Y. Effect of Chlormadinone Acetate, a SyntheticProgesterone, on Restoring Impaired Load Compensation in Chronic ObstructivePulmonary Disease. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 119-132 - We examined whether or not progestational agents can improve the pathophysiological conditions by augmenting the respiratory drives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At first, respiratory drives evaluated by ventilation and occlusion pressure responses to CO2 with and without inspiratory flow-resistive loading were compared between 19 COPD and 21 control subjects. Although there were no significant differences in occlusion pressure responses to CO2 between both groups, the load compensation assessed by the ratio of loaded to unloaded slopes in the occlusion pressure response to CO2 was significantly lower in the COPD patients than in the control subjects. Secondly, 14 COPD patients administered chlormadinone acetate (CMA), a synthetic progesterone, were examined, and it was found that the patients restored the impaired load compensation, particularly significant in the bronchitic type. Thirdly, the ratio of ventilation to occulsion pressure response to CO2(ΔVI/ΔP.2) was significantly decreased in the emphysematous type, whereas such was not the case in the bronchitic type. Thus, improvement of load compensation in the bronchitic type was considered to have been accomplished without accompanying an impairment of ventilatory efficiency. We conclude that CMA could be used as a relevant respiratory stimulant.
WAKO, Y., SUZUKI, K., GOTO, Y. and KIMURA, S. Vitamin A Transport inPlasma of Diabetic Patients. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 133-143-The effects of diabetes on the vitamin A metabolism were studied. The concentrations of plasma retinol and retinyl ester were measured in diabetic patients using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In diabetic patients, the mean level of retinyl ester was significantly elevated compared to that of normal subjects (diabetes, 68.3±42.5IU/100ml of plasma; study I, 87.6±64.3IU/100ml of plasma; study II vs. normal, 29.8± 10.3IU/100ml of plasma). The ultracentrifugal and column chromatographic studies were carried out to examine the distribution of retinyl ester in patient's plasma. Ultracentrifugation study showed that the mean of 72.6% of retinyl ester was recovered in the lipoproteins of density higher than 1.006 and the remainder was recovered in the chylomicron (d<1.006). Gel filtration profiles for the separation of plasma vitamin A demonstrated that retinyl ester presented in the HDL, LDL and larger molecular size lipoprotein (suspected to be VLDL) as well as in the chylomicron.
WAKABAYASHI, Y., SAKAMOTO, H., MISHINA, T. and MARUMO, F. Hyperchloremiain Patients with Chronic Renal Failure. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 145-150-The electrolyte and acid base composition of steady state chronic renal failure patients were studied. A particular comparison was made between the group of hyperchloremic and normochloremic patients, matched for sex, age, serum creatinine concentration and the etiology of the disease. Hyperchloremia was constantly seen in any stage of the disease in hyperchloremic patients, and they were found to be more acidemic, with lower anion gap, than normochloremic patients. A greater degree of tubular dysfunction than glomerular dysfunction was considered as the cause of acidosis and hyperchloremic in any stage of the disease. Hyperchloremia could be an indication to initiate alkali therapy to protect against further loss of bone mineral and the progression of the disease itself.
KAWARADA, Y. and OKUHARA, E. Antibodies Specific for Methylated DNAElicited in Rabbits Recognize only a Single Strand Region of DNA Containing7-Methylguanine. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 151-161-Immunogenicity of methylated DNA (Me-DNA) was investigated in connection with the changes of the high order structure. Antibodies specific for Me-DNA were elicited in the rabbits with DNA methylated at different extents. When Me-DNA was chromatographed on a hydroxyapatite column and was separated into single and double stranded forms, Me-DNA eluted at single strand position was found to react only with the anti-Me-DNA antibodies. In order to examine the immunogenicity of both single and double stranded forms, each form was injected in rabbits respectively. No specific antibodies were produced for the double stranded form, whereas the single stranded form showed a potent immunogenicity. On the other hand, the antigenicity of the single stranded Me-DNA was decreased or lost in parallel with the extent of the release of 7-methylguanine residues from the molecule on heating under the neutral condition. These results revealed that single stranded structure of Me-DNA is immunogenic or antigenic and that 7-methylguanine residues of Me-DNA play an important role in forming a characteristic structure required for the manifestation of its specific antigenicity.
TOKI, T., OIKAWA, N., TASE, T., SATO, S., WADA, Y., YAJIMA, A. and HIGASHIIWAI, H. Immunohistochemical and Electron Microscopic Demonstrationof Human Papillomavirus in Dysplasia of the Uterine Cervix. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 163-167 - Twenty-five cases of dysplasia of the uterine cervix were studied for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) by means of immunohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques. Serial sections of the same histological specimen were examined in each case. HPV was detected in 14 cases by both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, while 10 cases were negative with both methods. In only one case, there was a discrepancy in the results derived from these two methods. It was concluded that the relation between HPV infection and cervical dysplasia was confirmed and that immunohistochemical and electron microscopic methods led almost to the same result in detecting HPV in cervical dysplasia.
GOTO, T., ABE, K., TSUNODA, K., SEINO, M., YASUJIMA, M., IMAI, Y., CHIBA, S., SATO, M., HARUYAMA, T., OMATA, K., SATO, K., TAJIMA, J., TANNO, M., KUDO, K. and YOSHINAGA, K. The Changes in Active and Inactive Renin Induced byVarious Maneuvers in Hypertensive Patients. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 169-181 - The changes in active and inactive renin after captopril (n=29) or furosemide administration (n=10) were studied in hypertensive patients. Furthermore, after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in 3 cases of renovascular hypertension (RVH), and after nephrectomy in a case of juxtaglomerular cell tumor, the time course of the changes in these two types of renin was investigated. Inactive renin was activated by trypsin treatment. Plasma renin concentration was measured by using an excess of sheep substrate. In patients with essential hypertension or primary aldosteronism, inactive renin was unchanged, irrespective of response in active renin, after the administration of captopril and furosemide. In patients with RVH, inactive renin was markedly decreased by furosemide but unchanged by captopril, in spite of significant increase in active renin. After PTA and nephrectomy, inaative renin decreased slower than active renin. These data support the idea that in patients with RVH, the increase in active renin by furosemide is at least partly due to the activation of inactive renin. It is also suggested that the increase in active renin by captopril is mainly due to the promoted release of active renin from the kidney. Furthermore, it seems likely that the metabolic clearance of inactive renin is slower than that in active renin.
INOUE, M., SATO, T. and YOSHINAGA, K. Effects of Carbohydrates on InsulinRelease from the Isolated Islets. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 183-189-Effects of monosaccharides and disaccharides on insulin release from the isolated islets were studied. (1) Insulin release from the isolated islets was 26.2μU/5 islets/hr in carbohydrate-free medium and increased by the addition of D-glucose or D-mannose. L-Glucose was ineffective by itself but potentiated the insulin release stimulated by D-glucose. Effects of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine on insulin release were similar to those of L-glucose. (2) Among monosaccharides, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, D-galactosamine, L-fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid and D-ribose decreased insulin release and had no effect on insulin release by D-glucose. (3) D-Galactose and D-fructose also decreased insulin release. However, they potentiated the insulin release when D-glucose was also present. (4) Cellobiose and lactose, which have a β (1-4) linkage to glucose molecule at the reducing end, inhibited insulin release stimulated by D-glucose. On the other hand, sucrose and maltose lacking theβ (1-4) linkage, did not inhibit the insulin release stimulated by D-glucose. These results suggest that insulin release from the isolated islets is stimulated by carbohydrates which can be metabolized in B-cells. Non-metabolizable analogues of D-glucose or disaccharides show different effects on glucose transport or glucose metabolism in the B-cells according to their chemical structures.
IGUCHI, A., HANEDA, K., SATO, S. and HORIUCHI, T. Determination of SafeInterval of Circulatory Arrest from the Cerebral Metabolic Aspect. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 191-204 - To determine the safe interval of hypothermic total circulatory arrest, the cerebral metabolic state was evaluated in 30 dogs. Surface cooling was achieved by deep ether anesthesia and the animals were assigned to three equal groups. Group I: 30min circulatory arrest and surface rewarming. Group II: 60min circulatory arrest and surface rewarming. Group III: 60min circulatory arrest and perfusion rewarming. Brain tissue gas tension was monitored and cerebral O2 consumption was calculated. Cerebral O2 consumption reduced with cooling, parallel to the decrease in cerebral blood flow. Rapid increase in PO2, elevation of PCO2, and decrease of pH in the brain tissue were observed during circulatory arrest. Brain tissue PO2 increased significantly after circulatory arrest in Group I, but it remained low during rewarming in Groups II and III. Cerebral O2 consumption was at reduced levels in all groups during rewarming and it remained at 29% of the precooling control level in Group II at the end of rewarming, whereas it recovered to 71% and 57% of the precooling levels in Groups I and III, respectively. It was estimated that cerebral metabolism may be recovered after 30min circulatory arrest, despite a transient reduction in cerebral O2 consumption. On the other hand, after 60min circulatory arrest, the recovery of cerebral metabolism was delayed in Group II and organic failure might have occurred in this group. However, even after circulatory arrest for 60 min, cerebral metabolism was recovered in Group III. The safe period of circulatory arrest is considered to be prolonged by use of extra-corporeal circulation.
ARAKI, S. and MURATA, K. Suicide Mortality in Japan: Analysis of theUnusual Secular Trends. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 205-211 - To investigate unusual secular trends in suicide rate in Japan since the Second World War, the cause-specific mortality by sex and age during the period 1950-82 was analyzed. The results indicated that: (1) suicide death rates due to two causes, i.e., poisoning by solid and liquid substances and run over by train and other means, for young persons increased remarkably in the mid 1950s; and (2) the rates due to most causes for middle-aged men continued to increase during the period of economic depression following the oil crisis in 1973. The effects of availability of suicide methods and changes in economy on suicide death rate are discussed in the light of these findings.
ARAKI, S. and MURATA, K. Social Life Factors Affecting Stillbirth, andInfant and Adult-Disease Mortality. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 213-219 - The effects of a wide variety of social life factors on stillbirth rate as well as infant and adult-disease mortality rates in 46 prefectures in Japan were analyzed by stepwise regression analysis twice at a 5-year interval. Adult-disease mortality was calculated by summing age-adjusted mortality from five major causes of death. The results indicated that rural residence was the key factor affecting infant and adult-disease mortality; low income, together with social mobility, was the principal factor for stillbirth. International differences in the effects of urbanisation on these mortality rates are discussed in the light of these findings.
ARAKI, S. Social Life Factors Affecting Major Malignant Neoplasms in Japan. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 221-228 - The effects of a wide variety of social life factors on the mortality of five major malignant neoplasms, i.e. those of the stomach, lung (and trachea and bronchus), breast and uterus, and leukemias, in 46 prefectures in Japan were analyzed by stepwise regression analysis twice at a 5-year interval. The results indicated the following three predisposing factors for malignant neoplasms: (1) rural residence for leukemias; (2) urban residence for the remaining four neoplasms including those of the uterus and stomach; and (3) low income for the neoplasms of the uterus and lung (and trachea and bronchus). On the other hand, old age was assumed to be the protective factor for the mortality of the neoplasms of the breast. It is suggested that urban residence is the principal factor affecting the mortality of various malignant neoplasms in Japan.
KONDOH, Y., MURAKAMI, M., TAKAHASHI, K., ITOH, I., MIZUSAWA, S., NAKAMICHI, H., SASAKI, H., WATANABE, K., TAGAWA, K. and UEMURA, K. Evaluation of N-Isopropyl-[125I] p-Iodoamphetamine Affinity Sites in Rat Brainby Autoradiography. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1986, 149 (2), 229-230-Affinity sites of N-isopropyl-[125I] p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) were studied in rat brain employing in vitro technique of receptor autoradiography. High degrees of IMP accumulation were observed in almost regions of white matter and some of gray matter. Phenethylamine, glutamic acid and serotonin suppressed IMP accumulation in all brain regions, in cerebral cortex and in hypothalamus, respectively. These results indicated that IMP was accumulated mainly due to its physicochemical property of lipophilicity and might have some interactions with neurotransmitter receptors.