We investigated the production of inflammatory cytokines derived from cultured T cells of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in 14 patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). The production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, was significantly increased in patients with HAM, compared to HTLV-I seronegative controls. On the contrary, interleukin-4 production in cultured T cells was detected in only two patients with HAM, and not detected in HTLV-I seronegative controls. These results suggest that the production of inflammatory cytokines derived from TH1 cell population was simultaneously exaggerated in HAM patients. Interestingly, accelerated production of these cytokines was derived from CD4+ cells, which are main target cells in HTLV-I infection. These findings suggest that an inflammatory state in the central nervous system might be related to the pathogenesis of HAM.
Nutritional survey was conducted in a winter season of 1992-3 by collecting seventy-one 24-hour food duplicate samples from three groups of middle-aged women (22 to 25 subjects per group) in traditional residential areas in the cities of Tokyo (two groups) and Kyoto (one group), two cultural centers in Japan known to have different food customs. The analysis in terms of intake of nutrients such as energy, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, minerals, vitamins and fibers did not show significant difference among the three groups studied. Sodium chloride intake also did not differ. Daily consumption of food materials (evaluated as classified in terms of, e.g., cereals, meat, fish and vegetables) was similar. Relative weight of three meals and snacks in energy intake did not vary among the groups. Consumption of milk and bread as indicators of intake of non-traditional food was also comparable among the groups. The observation as a whole suggests that the different food custom once known to be present between the two local cultures is no longer detectable. Nationwide extensive transport of food materials is discussed as one of possible causes.
In the present study we investigated the effect of zinc-deficiency on chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic index, and the interaction of zinc-deficiency and methotrexate. Therefore, two zinc-deficient and two zinc-adequate diet received mouse groups were constituted. Methotrexate was injected to one of zinc-deficient and one of zinc-adequate diet groups. There were no structural and numerical abnormalities in all groups. However, mitotic index was significantly lower than other groups in zinc-deficient and methotrexate administered mice.
The values obtained by the weighing and duplicate methods were compared with those obtained by direct chemical measurement to evaluate the validity of these methods on 27 meals in an agricultural village in Aomori Prefecture. Using the Fourth revised edition of the Japanese Standard Food Consumption Table, the lipid, protein, carbohydrate and energy content of each meal were calculated by each method, and the values were compared with the direct, chemically-measured values. The values for nutrients except protein obtained by the weighing method were slightly lower than those obtained by the duplicate method or direct measurement. A higher correlation with the directly-measured values was noted for the values obtained by the duplicate method. Among analyzed nutrient values, the highest correlation was noted for protein, followed by energy.
We analyzed the CT findings in 35 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Twenty-seven patients had biopsy-proven sarcoidosis; in eight patients the diagnosis was made clinically. In all the 35 patients, 10-mm collimation scans were available. In seven patients, high-resolution CT was also obtained. Twenty-eight patients had lymphadenopathy associated with pulmonary infiltration, two patients had pulmonary infiltration without lymphadenpathy, five patients had lymphadenopathy alone. The most frequent parenchymal features on CT were small nodules (100%) and irregularly thickened bronchovascular bundle (90%). Other frequent CT findings were pleural or subpleural thickening (83%), septal lines (73%) and ground-glass attenuation (63%). In all cases, small nodules were associated with other lesions. The authors conclude that in patient with sarcoidosis, CT is a valuable technique to visualize the findings in the pulmonary parenchyma characteristic enough to allow confident diagnosis. While high-resolution CT is superior in the assessment of linear opacities and cysts, conventional CT is superior in demonstrating small nodular opacities. We believe that both should be combined in the examination of patients with sarcoidosis.
The incidence of chronic hydrocephalus was studied in 39 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, who underwent perivascular coating with fibrin glue of cerebral arteries after clipping of aneurysm. A use was made of this procedure in order to prevent vasospasm by keeping the main cerebral arteries away from direct contact with subarachnoid clots. Most cases in this series belonged to group 3 of Fisher's CT grade (33/39, 84.6%). As a result, despite the high CT grade, the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus was as low as 17.9% (7/39), almost in agreement with those of the previous literature. In conclusion, (1) coating with fibrin glue did not increase the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus and (2) intrathecal application of fibrin glue is a promising method in the field of clinical neurosurgery.
Expression of CD44 isoform that contains variant exons (v1-v10) has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. Especially, CD44 isoform containing v6 (CD44v6) and that containing v7 (CD44v7) were shown to confer full metastatic behavior on tumor cells. We examined the expression of CD44v6 and CD44v7 in malignant pleural effusions (13 lung cancers and 4 non-lung cancers) and in benign pleural effusions (7 tuberculosis and 3 pneumonia) with Southern blot analysis of reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. CD44v6 was expressed not only in malignant pleural effusions (12 of 13 lung cancers and 4 of 4 non-lung cancers), but also in benign pleural effusions(9/10). In contrast, although expression of CD44v7 was found in most malignant pleural effusions (12 of 13 lung cancers and 4 of 4 non-lung cancers), it was found in only a few cases of benign pleural effusions. These results suggest that the expression of CD44v7 may be correlated with a tumor-specific event such as metastasis or dissemination in malignant pleural effusion, while no such correlation can be found with CD44v6.
An autopsy case of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is reported with immunohistochemical investigation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In a 58-year-old male, esophagectomy for carcinoma was performed with a transfusion of 4 units of fresh whole blood. Diarrhea, fever, erythematous rash, pain and leukopenia occurred with an onset 11 days after the operation. He died of sudden dyspnea 29 days after the operation. At autopsy, histological examinations revealed lichenoid lesion in the skin, injury of mucosal epithelia in the digestive tract and damage of interlobular bile ducts in the liver. Immunohistochemical investigation suggested the association between these lesions and CD8-positive T lymphocytes. Severe disturbances of bone marrow and lymphoid organs were accompanied with gram-positive cocci infection in the lungs, esophagus and small intestine. PCR analysis of DNA at microsatellite loci, human growth hormone (HGH) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B), showed DNA chimerism and established the definitive diagnosis of TA-GVHD.
This paper describes a procedure for loading the acetoxymethyl ester of fura-2 (fura-2/AM), and the subsequent measurement of the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in Selenomonas ruminantium (S. ruminantium) using this technique. To ascertain the optimal loading conditions, the effect was examined on the loading of fura-2/AM of ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), lysozyme, pluronic F127 alone, or the simultaneous application of EDTA and pluronic F127. Individual administration of either EDTA, lysozyme or pluronic F127 did not produce an optimal loading of fura-2/AM. The co-application of pluronic F127 and bovine serum albumin after treatment with EDTA increased the ratio of the fluorescence due to excitation at 340 nm to that at 380 nm (R340/380) markedly, with a high signal intensity for intracellular fura-2, indicating that adequate loading had been obtained. Using the present loading method, it was found that the resting free [Ca2+]i of S. ruminantium was 48.1 ± 2.2 nM (n = 6). This is approximately one half that found in Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium acnes, Streptococcus bovis and eucaryote cells. This is the first measurement of free [Ca2+]i using fura-2/AM in the Gram-negative strict anaerobe S. ruminantium.